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NIYIGABA  Etienne

2016-09-28 09:23:52

Ubuhinzi bwacu: IHEREZO RY'UMUSARURO W'UMUHINZI

Bahinzi Borozi nshuti z’ubuhinzi, Kuri iki cyumweru taliki ya 25/09/2016 hakozwe ikiganiro UBUHINZI BWACU . Nk’uko bisanzwe ku Cyumweru saa mbiri ku mbuga za YEAN Rwanda tuba turi mu Kiganiro UBUHINZI BWACU , tukaba twari turi kuganira  ku nsanganyamatsiko igira iti ” IHEREZO RY’UMUSARURO W’UMUHINZI” . Gahunda yo gushishikariza abahinzi guhinga neza ngo babone umusaruro mwiza irakomeje , hanyuma dutekereze igihe umusaruro umaze kuboneka bigenda bite? Turibanda kuri ibi: Ubwiza n’ubwinshi bw’umusaruro , Uburyo umusaruro ukoreshwa, Kongerera umusaruro agaciro, Kubika Umusaruro igihe kirekire .

Abitabiriye ikiganiro batangiye bagaruka cyane ku buryo umusaruro uboneka igihe gito ukaba uhagije yemwe ugasanga bimwe byabuze abaguzi, ariko hashira igihe gito ugasanga byashize, ibiciro bikazamuka cyane ku masoko. Aha ubwo twakoraga ikiganiro umuhinzi yavuzeko inkebo y’inyanya igeze ku mafaranga 5000rwf kandi hari igihe ijya igura amafaranga 60,000rwf.uyu n’abo bafatanyije umwuga wo guhinga inyanya I Matimba ati ”IGICIRO NI AMAHIRWE “ . Haganiriwe byinshi kuri iyi ngingo kandi buri wese yagiye atanga ingero mu buhinzi bwe .

Aha tugiye kubikubira mu ngingo z’ingenzi zigaragaza imirongo migari yaganiriweho .

Ubwiza n’ubwinshi bw’umusaruro.

Muri make ubwiza bw’umusaruro buracyari hasi ,mu gihe utanatunganyijwe bugira ingaruka mbi ku musaruro mwinshi cyangwa uboneye uba wabonetse .

Hari imbogamizi zigaragara zituma umusaruro utaboneka nk’uko bikwiye  :

– “Ibikorwaremezo bidahagije cyangwa bitaboneye, nk’ubuhunikiro bw’ umusaruro  igihe  hategerejwe kugurishwa”,

– “gutunganya umusaruro  bigabanya ubuziranenge, aha twavuga nk’ Urugero rw’ umuhinzi uhuje ikibando  ubwiza n’ubuziranenge bwawo butandukanye n’umuceri wasarujwe imashini zimwe bakoresha ibirenge”

-“ Ubwanikiro  budafite ubuziranenge. Urugero hari aho ugera ugasanga banitse ibigori kuri sheeting cyangwa hasi. Ni cyo cyagihe umuhinzi nagurisha hazaba harimo amabuye cyangwa itaka. Niba rwiyemezamirimo  ashaka kunguka bizamuhombera birumvikana nawe ahagarike kugurira abo bahinzi”. Uyu ati : “Ni gute umuhinzi ahinga ibigori akabura isoko kandi uzahagarare k’umupaka wa Gatuna ubare amakamyo ahinjira buri saha azanye ibigori munganda zikora processing! Wabisobanura ute?”

– “Kumutsa  no kubika umusaruro neza. Ibi bikomereye umuhinzi dufite  uyu munsi  kuko kwanika, kumutsa no kubika  umusaruro  ku mbuto zibikeneye usanga bitamworoheye kuko bakoresha ingufu z’izuba aho udashobora kumenya  urugero rw’ubushyuhe cyangwa ububobere imbuto zawe zifite. Uru ni urwego rwagombye gushyirwamo ingufu na leta kuko birenze ubushobozi bw’ umuhinzi. Gusa twibuke ko byakemuka mu gihe abahinzi bibumbiye hamwe kandi hari amategeko n’amabwiriza agenga imicungire yabo”.

-“ Imitwarire y’umusaruro ku mahunikiro no ku masoko. Aha harimo ikibazo kuko nta bikoresho biha umutekano umusaruro ngo udata ubuziranenge bwawo. Urugero umuhinzi mukubitana ajyanye inyanya mu ntebo ari bukore kilometero eshatu ugasanga zimwe zamenetse umutobe urajojoba bityo ingano n’ ubwiza bikagabanuka kuko  n’izisigaye usanga zabaye imineke”.

– “Ibikorwaremezo: imihanda idatunganyije amasoko atajyanye n’ubwoko bw’ umusaruro. Nk’urugero ngo niba ari isoko ry’inyanya rigire uburyo ryubakwa ndetse  n’ibihabitswe bigire ubuziranenge. Niba ari imboka uko zibikwa uko zitwarwa ntibitume zinamba ngo umuhinzi ahahombere”.

Ubwinshi bw’umusaruro nabwo bwagarutsweho “Ubundi mu Rwanda ntitwagakwiye kuvuga ngo umusaruro wabuze isoko kuko ibyo duhinga ubwacu ntibihagije rwose! Urebye umusaruro w’imbere mugihugu uko ungana na population (consomateurs) rwose turacyari kure cyane kandi rwose kwihuza kw’abahinzi byo byagorana nta rwego rwa leta rubahagarariye ngo rubareberere!”

-“ Erega processing ntabwo yashingira kubuhinzi buri seasonal (bushingiye ku bihe)”

– “Hakorwa ubukangurambaga cyane mu itangira ry’igihembwe cy’ubuhinzi, Ariko iyo abahinzi bamaze gutera imbuto imbaraga zakoreshwaga mu iyamamazabuhinzi zigabanukaho nka 50% (my personal observation ), atari ibyo abahinzi umusaruro wifuzwa mu bwiza no mu bwinshi waboneka dore ko nta muhinzi utifuza inyungu”

Kongerera umusaruro agaciro

Aha dusangamo  uburyo umusaruro utunganywa kuva mu murima kugeza mu buhunikiro. Gusa twibuke ko mu gihe  ibi by’ ibanze bidatunganye kuwongerera agaciro  bigorana. Kugeza ubu uko abahinzi babibona ni uku:

Abaguzi benshi ku bahinzi batatanyije  ;

“Usanga abahinzi batibumbiye hamwe buri wese  ashaka kwivanaho ibyo yahinze bityo bagahendwa ndetse abenshi ntibagaruze ayo bashoye, banayagaruza akaba ari ku rugero rwo hasi cyane.  mugihe bafite umurongo bagenderaho bashobora kugira ijambo ku musaruro wabo. Urugero nta muhinzi ufite ubushobozi bwo guhunika inyanya mu minsi irenze itatu kuko zaba zangiritse. Nyamara baramutse bari hamwe byatanga ingufu zo kubaka nka chambre froide babikamo umusaruro noneho bagafata umwanya wo kumvikana n’umuguzi kuko ntacyaba kibirukansa”

Nta nganda ziciriritse cyangwa ubucuruzi  bwongerera agaciro umusaruro.

Iki cyagarutsweho cyane aho bagize bati “Isoko kujyanayo ibigori urahomba. Jyanayo kawunga!!!” ariko hakagaraga ikibazo nanone cy’uko “dufite ikibazo cya postharvest,Urebye condition zisabwa ku bigori bijya muri Minimex ziragoye kuburyo utabasha kuzigeraho udafite ubwanikiro bwiza.”

“Gusa twibuke ko imyumvire y’abaguzi aha naho ari ikibazo ahitamo kugura ibihendutse atitaye ku isuku n’ingaruka. Bigatuma rero n’ufite gahunda yo kongerera ibye agaciro ahitamo gukora nk’abandi basanzwe.”

Uburyo umusaruro  ukoreshwa

Ukurikije amabarura yatambutse y’ubuhinzi (Seasonal Agriculture Survey) usanga Abahinzi benshi bahingira kurya kuko umusaruro wo basagurira amasoko ukiri hasi. Ibi bifite impamvu zitandukanye zirimo  umusaruro muke uturutse ku bihe by’ikirere, guhinga twinshi  no kutitabira guhinga igihingwa kimwe ngo babone umusaruro uhagije ku buso bahinga, bitewe n’uko ubukungu bwabo buba bukeneye  kwitabwaho usanga na duke batumarira ku masoko banahenzwe. Muri make mbona umusaruro wabo ugishingiye ku “maramuko” kurusha “ku kwihaza no gusagurira isoko” . Uyu yagize ati “Guhunika nibyiza ariko habonetse uburyo bwo kohereza umusaruro hanze byaba byiza .bikaba byatuma umuhinzi ahinga afite isoko” ariko biza kugaragara ko “Mbere yo kubyohereza hanze twareba niba twihagije.Turacyakenera kawunga iva hanze. Ndumva hashirwaho inganda nyinshi na gahunda y’uko izo nganda zajya zigezwaho umusaruro for possessing(wo gutunganya)”

Kubika umusaruro igihe kirekire

Muri rusange aha haracyari ikibazo. Hubatswe amakusanyirizo hirya no hino nubwo nayo adahagije ariko nayo  ntabona  umusaruro. Aho bikorwa bigaragara ko bitanga  ihumure ku muhinzi ko atazabura imbuto kandi bituma umusaruro uhurizwa hamwe n’abaguzi bakawusanga uhujwe . Gusa hagaragaramo imbogamizi:

– “Aho ari umuhinzi ntazi neza inyungu avanamo uretse kumva ko ihinga nirigera atazabura imbuto”

-“ Ubwumvikane buke ku ngano y’ umusaruro ugemurwa n’uwo umuhinzi  asigaragana cyane ko  umuhinzi usanga kubera gushaka guhinga twinshi nta n’ umusaruro uhagije abona ugasanga ntibashaka kubyitabira”.

– “Kugeza ubu amakusanyirizo aboneka  ni ay’ibihingwa nk’ibigori, ibishyimbo n’ibirayi. Usanga ibindi bihingwa nk’ibitoki n’ibindi nta buryo buhari bwo kubihunika igihe kirekire”.

“Muri make uru rwego ruracyacyeneye ingufu no kwaguka kandi Leta ikabigiramo uruhare  kuko nta muhinzi wabasha kwiyubakira ubu buhunikiro bugezweho”

Hari ibihingwa byamaze kubonerwa umuti w’iherezo ry’umusaruro wabyo

Ku byagiye bigarukwaho hatinzwe cyane ku kuba hari ibihingwa byiganjemo ngengabukungu bifite isoko rihoraho nk’ikawa,icyayi, ibireti,… ndetse n’ibindi ngandura rugo birimo ibirayi, ibigori . Abahinzi babyo bemezako nubwo hataburamo utubazo duto duto ariko ntago bajya babura isoko burundu. Abahinzi kandi basabye ko hagakwiye kwigwa uburyo hashyirwaho ikurikiranwa n’igeno ry’iherezo ry’umusaruro wa buri gihingwa (Value chain). Uyu yagize ati “Hagakwiye no gukorwa inyigo ku isoko rya buri gihingwa cyangwa ibikomoka kubuhinzi n’ubworozi value chain yose ikajya ahagaragara kandi ababishinzwe bose bakamenyekana ibibazo bafite bikamenyekana” “Icyo gukora value chain ya buri gihingwa ni cyo gisubizo cyonyine njye mbona kuko aho ikibazo kiri hazagaragazwa ibisubizo bishakwe!”

Bimwe mu byakorwa

“Kubaka ibikorwa remezo  bikozwe na Leta ifatanyije n’abikorera  mu rwego rwo kongera  ubwiza bw’umusaruro byanaba intango yo kuzamura agaciro kawo”

“Gukomeza ubukangurambaga ku bahinzi mu guhinga  ibihingwa hakurikijwe uko byagenwe no kubabumbira hamwe mu rwego rwo guhesha agaciro  umusaruro wabo”.

“Guteza imbere ikoranabuhanga mu bakora ubuhinzi”.

“Ndumva nkumusanzu wacu Abagronome, mugihe twigisha abahinzi twajya dutinda kukintu cya market targeting (guhingira isoko uzi neza)”

“Guhunika umusaruro bikwiriye kurebwa mu bice bibiri:Ibihingwa byangirika vuba (Imboga, ibijumba, ibitoki, n’Imbuto); n’Ibihingwa bitangirika vuba (ibigori, ibishyimbo,…)”

“Gushyira imbaraga mu kwigisha uko babika umusaruro muburyo bwiza kurwego rw’umuhinzi”

“gushiramo imbaraga agri value chain ya buri gihingwa , aho ikibazo kiri hagaragazwe ibisubizo bishakwe”

“Abahinzi twagombye guhinga dufite amasezerano yanditse kubijyanye nabazafata umusaruro wacu”

“Gukangurira abahinzi guhinga ibihe byose bivuze kuhira mugihe cy’impeshyi”

“Uko minisiteri ibishinzwe ishyiramo imbaraga ikangurira abahinzi guhinga niko na minisiteri ishinzwe ubucuruzi yakabaye ifata ingamba zizatuma ibyo umuhinzi yejeje ‘bitamusubiza ku isuka’ ahubwo bikamusunikira  mu buhinzi bw’umwuga, imufasha kugurisha neza (naho ubundi condition zisabwa ku bwiza zagashobotse ariko zongera agaciro n’igishoro kandi azabona Frw make ku  kilo )”

“Ni hubakwe ‘filiaire’ ya buri gihingwa, abahinzi bihuze kugira ngo bakore bimwe kandi bashakire isoko hamwe ari nako biyubakira ubushobizi”.

Icyitonderwa:

  1. Ibitekerezo byatanzwe byose ntago byagarajwe hano bitewe n’uko ari ikiganiro kirekire cyane hagiye hatoranywamo imirongo migari ikavugwa muri make.
  2. Amazina yabatanze ibitekerezo ntago yagaragajwe muri iyi nkuru gusa amagambo yose ari mu utwuguruzo n’utwugarizo (“…”) yose yandikuwe uko yanditse mu kiganiro.
  3. Ikiganiro nk’iki kiba buri ku Cyumweru.
  4. Ushaka gukurikira ibi biganiro ukaba uri umuhinzi/umworozi cyangwa umugoronome/veterineri ku rwego urwo arirwo rwose nawe wasaba kujya k’urubuga rwa YEAN Whatsapp unyuze kuri nimero ikurikira: +250 788 845 727 ,wakurikira YEAN kuri facebook cyangwa kuri twitter #UbuhinziBwacu @YEAN_Rwanda

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