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NIYIGABA  Etienne

2016-10-21 16:16:51

Itandukaniro hagati y'Ifumbire y'imborera n'ifumbire Mvaruganda

Ifumbire ni iki?

Ifumbire ni ikintu cyose cyaba gituruka ku mborera cyangwa kitari imborera, cyaba ari kimeza cyangwa cyarakorewe mu nganda, gishobora guha igihingwa intungangihingwa zikenewe kugirango gikure kandi gitange umusaruro mwiza ushoboka. Ifumbire y’imborera ituruka ku binyabuzima kimeza byaba ibihingwa cyangwa inyamaswa, bikubiyemo ifumbire ikomoka ku matungo, ikomoka ku byatsi, ibisigazwa by’ibyasaruwe, ibisigazwa by’ibyakoreshejwe mu ngo, ibimoteri, ndetse n’ibiti byaboze.

Ifumbire mvaruganda yo ituruka ku myunyu ngugu icukurwa nyuma ikanyuzwa mu nganda ngo itange iyo fumbire nyine (urugero: ishwagara, Potasiyumu, Fosifore,…) cyangwa se igaturuka ku nganda hifashishijwe ubumenyi mu by’ubutabire (Chemistry) (urugero: Uree). Ifumbire mvaruganda uburyo igaragara mo burahinduka bitewe n’uburyo yakozwemo. Utubumbe twayo dushobora kugira ingano n’isura itandukanye(hamwe ushobora gusanga ari utubumbe twiburungushuye , utunyampande ndetse n’umukungugu). Ifumbire mvaruganda kandi ishobora kuba ikozwe n’umwunyu ngugu umwe cyangwa ikaba igizwe n’urusobe ry’imyunyu gugu myinshi ariko yateranyijwe ku buryo butagaragarira ijisho bitewe n’impamvu igamijwe kugerwaho ahanini biba bitewe n’ibyo igihingwa bagiye kuyifumbiza gikeneye.

Umwihariko w’ifumbire y’Imborera.

Isoko y’intungagihingwa karemano mva mborera igenda ihindagurika haba mu bwiza no mu bwinshi. Ubwiza bw’ifumbire y’imborera buterwa n’intungagihingwa mborera (Organic nutrient ) yifitemo . Kugirango ifumbire y’imborera iboneke hagomba kubaho kubora kw’ibinyabuzima bizabyara iyi fumbire , uku kubora guterwa n’utunyabuzima duto , utu tunyabuzima dukoresha umwuka wa Karuboni (Carbon) ngo tubone imbaraga ariko tugakenera cyane Azote (Nitrogen) mu mikurire yatwo. Ibikoresho akenshi biboneka byifashishwa mugukora ifumbire mvaruganda ahanini biba bifite Azote (Nitrogen )nke , iyi nke rero ihari yifashishwa na twa tunyabuzima twavuze haruguru mu gukura kwatwo, ibi bikagira ingaruka ku miterere y’ifumbire y’imborera izaboneka n’ingano ya Azote (Nitrogen ) igihingwa kizasanga muri ya fumbire . Niyo mpamvu ibinyabuzima cyangwa ibihingwa bifite Azote nke bitanga ifumbire y’imborera mbi itongera umusaruro cyane. Kugirango iyi fumbire y’imborera itange umusaruro mwiza bisaba kuyikoresha ivanze n’ifumbire mvaruganda ikungahaye mu mwunyu ngugu wa Azote nka Amoniyumu-Nitarate(ammonium-nitrate) cyangwa Ire (Uree). Iyi mvange ituma igihingwa gikura neza gikoresheje za ntugagihingwa gikura mu Mvaruganda , gihagaze kubutaka bukoze mu mborera ituruka muri ya fumbire y’imborera.

Itandukaniro ry’ifumbire y’imborera n’ifumbire mvaruganda mu mikoreshereze yazo

Ifumbire y’imborera: Uburumbuke bw’ubutaka bw’abahinzi bato bushingiye ahanini ku bushobozi buba buhari bwo gukoresha ifumbire y’imborera. Ifumbire y’amatungo, ibisigazwa by’ibyasaruwe, ibiti byaboze, nibyo bikunze kwifashishwa ariko bikaba bikoreshwa ku rugero ruto tutabasha gutuma igihingwa kigera ku musaruro mwinshi gishobora gutanga. Gukoresha ifumbire y’imborera ikungahaye ku ntungagihingwa bikorwa gake. Ikiza cyo gukoresha ifumbire y’imborera ni uko byoroshye kuyibona ku giciro gito cyangwa se ukaba wayikorera.

Ifumbire mvaruganda : Ifumbire mvaruganda igomba gushyirwa ku bihingwa nibura inshuro ebyiri mu mikurire yabyo. Ifumbire ikoreshwa n’abahinzi ahanini usanga iri munsi cyane y’ibipimo mpuzamahanga byashyizeho , bitewe n’ubushobozi buke bwo kuyigura, kugira ingaruka ku bihingwa bitewe n’imikoreshereze , …. Igihe ifumbire mvaruganda ihari ntago bisaba imirimo myinshi , kuyishyira mu murima bitwara igihe gito kuburyo wasagura igihe cyo gukora indi mirimo .

Itandukaniro ry’ifumbire y’imborera n’ifumbire mvaruganda mu kuyitera/kuyishyira mu murima (Application)

Kumenya igihe ushyirira ifumbire mu murima wawe ni ikintu cy’ingenzi mu buhinzi. Ku ifumbire y’imborera , kugirango ibiyikoze bibore neza n’uburyo biboramo ndetse n’igihe wayishyiriye mu murima bigira ingaruka ku ntungagihinga itanga mu butaka. Uburyo bwo gushyira ifumbire y’imborera mu murima harimo kuyinyanyagiza mu murima ndetse no kuyiterana n’igihingwa. Kuyinyanyagiza birihuta kandi bituma ubona uburyo inyanyagije ku buryo bungana cyangwa butangana mu murima wawe, iyo umaze kuyinyanyagiza kubutaka hakurikiraho guhinga uyitaba . Iyo udafite ifumbire ihagije hakoreshwa uburyo bwo kuyiterana n’ibihigwa ariko ukibuka ko imbuto (intete) zidashyirwa mu ifumbire rwagati ahubwo zishyirwa ku ruhande gato cyangwa ifumbire igashyirwa ku muzeguruko w’aho intete iteye .

Ifumbire mwaruganda yo ishobora gushyirwa mu murima bikoreshejwe intoki cyangwa hakifashishwa ibikoresho byabugenewe. Iyo urimo gukoresha intoki ni ngombwa kuyikwirakwiza ku buryo bungana kugirango wirinde kugira aho ushyira nyinshi cyangwa ushyira nke kandi ugakurikiza ibipimo ngenderwaho. Iyo hakoreshejwe ibikoresho byabugenewe (Imashini, cyangwa ikindi gikoresho) bigomba kuba biregeye neza ku bipimo ngenderwaho. Iyo hakoresheje uburyo bwo guterana n’igibihingwa ukora ku buryo nta fumbire isukwa ku mbuto /Intete cyangwa igihingwa kiri kumera kugirango itangiza icyo gihingwa cyangwa imizi yacyo.

Itandukaniro ry’ifumbire y’imborera n’ifumbire mvaruganda mu Bushobozi bwazo

Gukomeza gukoresha ifumbire y’imborera bituma ubutaka bugira imborera nyinshi, bikagabanya isuri, bikongera uburyo amazi n’umwuka byinjira mu butaka , bikongera ubushobozi n’ibikorwa by’utunyabuzima two mu butaka tumwe dutuma habaho kubora kw’ibigize ifumbire y’imborera kandi bikongera umusaruro na nyuma y’igihembe cy’ihinga yashyiriwemo bivuzeko iyi fumbire ikomeza gutanga intungagihingwa buhoro buhoro no mu gihembwe cy’ihinga kizakurikira icyo yashyiriwemo mu murima. Gutegura neza ifumbire y’Imborera byongera ubwiza bwayo n’akamaro mu butaka.

Ifumbire mvaruganda yo itanga ako kanya intungagihingwa igihingwa gikeneye. Ifumbire mvaruganda igizwe n’imyunyu ngugu ikenewe ngo igihingwa gikure neza kandi vuba. Ingaruka nziza zo gukoresha ifumbire mvaruganda zigaragara iyo ubutaka yakoreshejweho bufite imborera. Niyo mpamvu ibisigazwa by’ibyasaruwe abahinzi bagirwa inama yo kubirekera mu murima bikaboreramo.

Imboganizi z’izi fumbire zombi

Ifumbire y’imborera

  • Ubusanzwe bisaba ifumbire nyinshi ngo ubone umusaruro wifuza
  • Itanga intungagishingwa buhoro buhoro bitari ako kanya
  • Bisaba kuyitegura mbere yo guhinga
  • Kugirango itange umusaruro wifuzwa , bisaba kuyikoresha uyivanga n’imvaruganda.

Ifumbire mvaruganda

  • Isaba ubushobozi buhanitse bwo kuyigura
  • Ntago iboneka neza ku bahinzi batuye mu cyaro kure
  • Isaba kuyishyira mu murima buri gihembwe cy’ihinga
  • Igira ingaruka mbi iyo nta mvura iguye cyangwa haguye imvura ikabije kuba nyinshi.

Byateguwe na NIYIGABA Etienne , email: niyigabat@gmail.com

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