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2015-11-02 18:16:25

Inkwavu: Ubworozi bw’inkwavu bya kijyambere ngo zitange umusaruro mwiza cyane mu gihe gito

Ubworozi bw’inkwavu bya kijyambere

Urukwavu ni itungo rigufi ryororoka cyane kandi vuba, ntirucuranwa n’abantu ibiryo kuko rushobora gutungwa n’ibyatsi, byaba bibisi cyangwa byumye. Ubworozi bw’inkwavu bworoshye kubukora ndetse buba bwiza cyane kubafite amikoro make n’intege nke.

Ubworozi bw’inkwavu bufite agaciro mu mibereho y’abanyarwanda kuko butanga umusaruro uhagije mu gihe gito kandi muburyo bworoshye:

  • Ntibutwara amafaranga menshi kandi imirimo yabwo ntivunanye
  • Inyama z’urukwavu zikungahaye ku ntungamubiri
  • Inkwavu zitanga ifumbire nziza kandi nyinshi,
  • Inkwavu ntizororerwa ahantu hanini

Ubworozi bw’inkwavu bugoboka vuba ababwitabira kuko bubyara amafaranga vuba kandi n’isoko rikaba riboneka.

Amoko y’inkwavu aboneka mu Rwanda      

Mu Rwanda hari amoko atandukanye yínkwavu,itandukaniro rigaragarira ku mabara,ku musaruro no ku biro urunkwavu rupima. Inkwavu zigaragara mu Rwanda ni izi zikurikira:

Newo Zelande

  • Ni urukwavu rufite ubwoya bwera kumubiri hose,
  • Urwo rukwavu iyo rukuze rupima hagati y’ibiro 4 na 4,5.
  • Rurororoka,rubyara hagati y’abana 6-7 rugacutsa 6
  • Rugira amaso yiganjemo ibara ritukura

Kaliforuniya

  • Urukwavu rw’umweru rugira amabara y’umukara ku matwi, ku maguru, ku murizo no ku munwa.
  • Rubyara abana bazima hagati ya 7-8 rugacutsa 7.
  • Urukwavu rw’ubu bwoko rukuze rushobora gupima ibiro 3,6.

Inyarwanda

  • Ubwoko nyarwanda bugira amabara atandukanye ntibukunze kurenza ibiro 3 ariko bushoboye kurwanya irwara

Imyororokere y’inkwavu

Inkwavu zororerwa mu kiraro cyubatse neza  gifite isuku kandi zikagaburirwa mu buryo bukwiye kugirango zirusheho gutanga umusaruro.

Kubaka ikiraro

  • Akazu inkwavu zibamo kagomba kuba nibura kicaye kuri cm 75 uvuye kubutaka.
  • Agasanduku kagomba kuba gafite:ibipimo bikurikira;
  • Uburebure: m 1
  • Ubugari: cm 75
  • Ubuhagarike: cm55

Inzu inkwavu zibamo

Inzu igomba kuba nini ikurikije umubare w’inkwavu zibamo:

  • Urukwavu rumwe rukuru rugomba kuba nibura mu mwanya uri hagati ya metero kare 0,6-0,7
  • Urukwavu rucutse  ruba mu mwanya nibura wa meterokare 0,1

Akazu gato cyane gatuma inkwavu zidindira ntizikure neza,kandi ntizigire ubuzima bwiza.

  • Inzu y’inkwavu igomba kujyamo umwuka, ariko ikaba ikingiye neza umuyaga.
  • Inkwavu zigomba kubona urumuri,kubura urumuri bituma inkwavu zanga kubangurira cyangwa kubangurirwa zikagabanya uburumbuke bwazo.
  • Kugirango urumuri rwinjire mu kiraro, urugi rugomba kuba rukonzwe mu mukwege (akayungiro).

Urukwavu ni itungo rigomba ituze kugirango rwororoke kandi rugire ubuzima bwiza. Ibibuza inkwavu amahoro cyane cyane ni: urusaku rukabije ,ibisimba cyangwa amatungo azirya(imbwa, imbeba)

Isuku

  • Isuku ni ingenzi cyane kugira ngo ubworozi bw’inkwavu bugire akamaro.
  • Urukwavu kurerwa n’imiti.
  • Umworozi agomba kurukingira mbere yuko rurwara.
  • Akazu k’urukwavu kagomba iteka guhorana isuku.
  • Isuku mu kazu ikingira indwara nyinshi nko guhitwa ibitukura n’ubuheri biterwa n’umwanda.

Akazu kagomba gusukurwa bihagije hagomba rero:

  • Ibyo bubakisha akazu bigomba guterwa umuti;
  • Kwirinda inguni zishobora guhisha ibyuririzi(udusimba)
  • Mu kazu hasi hagomba gutuma amahurunguru n’inkari binyuramo, ni ukuvuga kuba arumukwege ,cyangwa ibiti bitegeranye hagati yabyo harimo cm 1,5
  • Icyo ziriramo ibyatsi zitabyanduza.
  • Icyo ziriramo n’icyo zinyweramo byozwa buri munsi,
  • Urugi runini rutuma basukura neza hose.

Icyo ziriramo : Gishobora kuba agakombe umworozi akagafatisha k’urukuta rw’akazu kugirango urukwavu rutayamena.

Kugaburira inkwavu

Kugira ngo ikinyabuzima gikure, kigire ubuzima, cyororoke, kigire icyo gitanga kandi kirwanye irwara, gikenera amazi n’ibiribwa

Bimwe mu by’ingenzi urukwavu rurya

  • ibyatsi nka:kimari,inyabarasanya,amasununu,igifuraninda,imigozi y’ibijumba, igicumucumu, urwiri, setaria, tripsacum, urubingo
  • Ibibabi by’ibinyamisongwe: ubunyobwa,soya,ibishyimbo,amashaza, mucuna,desmodium
  • Ibyatsi byumye: ibibabi by’ibigori, iby’ingano, ubwatsi bwumye, ibishishwaby’amashaza n’ibyibishyimbo
  • Amakoma acagaguye
  • Ibibabi by’amashu,karoti
  • Ibisigazwa byo mu gikoniariko uksreba neza ko nta macupa yamenekeyemo cyangwa ikindi cya komeretsa   urukwavu mu kanwa. Ibyo bisigazwa bigomba kuba bifite isuku kandi bitarahuguta.

Kimwe  n’abantu urukwavu rukeneye guhindurirwa indyo kugira ngo rukure neza. Ni byiza kongeraho kubwatsi inkwavu zirya  son de riz,ibinyabijumba,impeke (bibashije kuboneka) umuceri utetse wasigaye;

Urukwavu rukoresha neza ibyatsi ariko kandi na none ruha agaciro ibiribwa bikize mu bitunga umubiri.

Umworozi ushaka kunguka cyane (kubona abana benshi kandi bakura vuba) mu bworozi bwe, ashobora kugura cyangwa ubwe akikorera imvange y’ibiribwa bikize kubitunga umubiri  ahereye kubyo agura cyangwa yihingira.

Muriyo mvange hagomba kuba harimo :

  • Ibiribwa bitera imbaraga
  • Ibyubaka umubiri
  • Za vitamine z’imyunyu

Dore ingero z’imvange nziza zitaruhije gukora umworozi yakwifashisha:

  1.  

Ibigori bisekuye       :Ibiro 3,5

Amasaka asekuye    :ibiro 3,5

Turto (ubunyobwa cyangwa ibihoke): ibiro 3

Umunyu ishwagara,ifu y’amagufa  :garama 300

  1. Ibigori bisekuye       :ibiro 4

Igiheri cy’umuceri   :ibiro 4

Soya ikaranze           :ibiro 2

Umunyu ishwagara :garama 300

Izi ngero tumaze kubona, umworozi azikoresha ashaka ibiro 10 by’imvange y’ibiribwa bikize ku bitunga umubiri.

Imvange y’ibiryo igaburirwa bitewe n’icyiciro urukwavu rurimo.

  • Inkwavu zikiri nto zikenera kugaburirwa indyo ikungahaye ku byubaka umubiri (soya,ubunyobwa)
  • Urukwavu rukuze rukenera cyane indyo ikungahaye ku bitera imbaraga (ibigori)

Kugirango umworozi agaburire neza inkwavu ze agomba:

  • Kuziha ibyatsi byinshi binyuranye, iyo bivanze bituma inkwavu zirya cyane.
  • Kugirango inkwavu zororoke cyane,urukwavu rukenera kugaburirwa imvange
  • Kuziha ibyatsi bitemye byumutse. Umworozi abyanika igihe gito kugira ngo byumuke kuko iyo bitose cyangwa byarahuguse, bishobora gutuma inkwavu zimererwa nabi,igifi nti gikore neza. Iyo abyanika umworozi abishyira mu gicucu amaze kubisanza ahantu humutse.
  • Kuziha ibyatsi byishyi: inshuro 2 cyangwa 3 mu munsi kandi mu masaha amwe buri gihe.
  • Kwitondera ibyo agaburira inkwavu:ibyatsi bimwe byica inkwavu: ikibonobono, umukoni, umutambashi, umuyenzi, akaziranyo, inkarabwe, umwishywa….
  • Guha inkwavu cyane cyane izonsa iteka amazi meza kand afutse.

Imyororokere y’inkwavu

Kubangurira:

  • Muri rusange urukwavu rubangurirwa ubwa mbere rufite amezi 5
  • Imfizi itangira kwimya ifite amezi 6
  • Urukwavu rwotsa ukwezi mu bworozi bwa kijyambere,naho mu miryango isanzwe rukonsa amezi 2;
  • Urukwavu ruhaka ukwezi kumwe
  • Urukwavu rwongera kubangurinzwa nyuma yamezi atatu.

Mu gihe inkwavu nyarwanda zigaburirwa ibyatsi gusa zidashobora kubyara inshuro zirenze 4 ku mwaka, inkwavu zigaburirwa ibiryo mvaruganda zishobora kugeza kubyaro 5 mu mwaka kuko igihe cyo kongera kuzibanguriza kigabanuko (abana bacuka vuba, kuko bagaburirwa iyo ndyo ikungahaye ku ntungamubiri).

Uburyo urukwavu rubangurirwa

  • Igihe cyo kubangurira urukwavu,umworozi niwe ukigena kuko urukwavu ntirutinda nk’ayandi matingo.
  • Iyo inda yamaganga itukuye, kaba akarusho igihe cyo kubangurirwa nyacyo.
  • Urukwavu rubangurirwa kare mu gitondo kare cyangwa ku gicamunsi bugiye kwira kandi bigakorerwa mu cyumba cy’imfizi.
  • Injiza inyagazi (isumba)mu kiraro cy’imfizi ubanje inda y’amaganga
  • Iyo rurangije kubangurirwa (iminota itanu irahagije)rusubuzwa mu kazu karwo.

Umubare w’inyagazi ku mfizi:

  • Imfizi imwe irahagije ku nyagazi ziri hagati 10 na 15 ariko ibyiza ni uguteganya imfizi 2 kugirango zijye zisimburana
  • Imfizi imwe yimya inshuro zitarenze ebyiri ku munsi kandi iminsi itarenze 4 mu cyumweru,
  • Mu kwezi kwa mbere rukoreshwa buhoro buhoro kuku rutarakomera.

Gusuzuma niba urukwavu rw’inyagazi rwafashe

  • Ntabundi buryo bushoboka uretse gukanda kunda hagati y’iminsi 10 na 14 urukwavu rumaze kubangurirwa(kurukanda bigomba gukorwa buhoro cyane kugirango rutaramburura,
  • Andika itariki wabanguriyeho urukwavu,
  • Iyo umworozi asanze rudahaka yongera kurubangurira bundi bushya.

Mu gihe urukwavu  rwafashwe(ruhaka):

  • Itwararike ko urukwavu rutabura amazi,
  • Gaburira neza urukwavu ruhaka

Kubyara: Urukwavu rubyara hashize iminsi mirongo itatu (30).

Gutegura ikiraro:

  • Mbere y’uko urukwavu rubyara tegura ikiraro ruzabyariramo byibura mbere y’iminsi hagati y’ibiri(2)n’itanu(5).
  • Sukura neza ikiraro, usasemo utwatsi tworoshye kandi twumutse tudahanda
  • Tera umuti wica udukoko mu kiraro,Tegura neza icyari inkwavu zizakuriramo kuko zivuka ntabwoya zifite ningobwa rero kuzirinda icyazibangamira cyose

Igihe cyo kubyara:

  • Hasigaye iminsi mike ngo rubyare, urukwavu rw’imfura amoya yo kunda rukayasasa kuri cya cyarire,
  • Urukwavu ntirukenera gufashwa mu gihe cyo kubyara ahubwo rukenera umutuzo n’isuku.
  • Gusuzuma icyari bikorwa akanya gato nyuma yo kubyara; umworozi yigizayo urukwavu kugirango avanemo ibyana bya mfuye cyangwa imiziha  urukwavu rutabashije kurya.

Kurekesha urukwavu abana b’urundi rwa byaye benshi cyangwa rutakiriho: Mu gihe hari inkwavu zagize ikibazo nyina igapfa ushobora kuzireresha kurundi:

  • Umubare w’abana ruhabwa ntugomba kurenga 3;
  • Abo bana bagomba kuba batarengeje iminsi 5 bavutse;
  • Abo bana nabo bazabana ntibagomba kurutanwa iminsi.

Gucutsa

  • Hagati y’ukweze n’igice (1.5)n’ameze 2 b’inkwavubavutse bose bavanwa kuri nyina umunsi umwe bagashyirwa mu biraro bisukuye ku mubare ungana na 7-8 muri buri ikiraro
  • Mbere yo gucutsa inkwavu ningobwa kuziha umuti w’umuzimire (impiswi y’ibitukura bita kogisidiyose),uwo muti ugakomeza gutagwa mu minsi 5 yuzuye.
  • Kirazira gushyira inkwavu zacutse aho zitisanzuye kuko bigabanya kororoka
  • Nyuma yo gucuka kugeza igihe cyo kugurishwa ;ni ukuvuga amezi 5-6,inkwavu zitungwa n’ibyatsi cyangwa ibinyampeke
  • Nyuma yo gucutsa, urukwavu ruhita rubangurirwa.

Iyo inkwavu zigomba kurenza icyo gihe cyo kubaho ,bitewe n’impamvu zitandukanye z’umworozi, nko kuba zaratoranyijwe kuzaba nk’ibyeyi, cyangwase zikaba zitabonerwa isoko ngo zigurishwe buri rukwavu rushyirwa ukwarwo iyo aramasekurume zigakonwa kugirango zikomeze zororwe hamwe n’amashashi.

Ibigenderwaho mu gutoranya imbyeyi zizakomeza mu bworozi

  • Kwipfura kurinda abana barwo neza no kubarwanaho ;
  • Kubyara abana bazima benshi;
  • Gucutsa abana bazima bafite ibiro bishimishije;
  • Kutagira amahane

Gutoranya imfizi: Imfizi igurwa ahandi mu zindi nkwavu kugirango hatazavuka ikibazo cy’amacugane

Kumenya umubare w’inkwavu zorowe

  • Kwambika urukwavu amaherena biba ngobwa
  • Aborozi basazwe bakoresha impapuro zigaragaza ubuzima n’imyororokereya buri nyagazi cyangwa se buri mfizi iri muri burikiraro kugirango hamenyekane neza umubare w’inkwavu ziri muri buri kiraro.
  • Ibyo byandikwa kw’ifishi ikamanikwa kuri buri kiraro cyangwa se iyo fishi ikabikwa niba hari ikibazo cyo kunyagirwa hanze cyangwa se kwangirika ,icyo gihe buri kiraro bishyirwaho inomero

Ibigomba kwandikwa kwifishi nibi bikurikira:

  • Inkomoko (inkwavu rwakomotseho)
  • Ubwoko bw’urukwavu
  • Igihe rwavukiye
  • Igitsina
  • Inumero iruranga
  • Umubare w’inkwavu zororewe mu kiraro
  • Inshuro rumaze kubyara niba ari inyagazi

Amashashi azasimbura inyagazi zishaje atoranywa mu gihe cyo gucutsa niyo mpamvu biba ngombwa gukoresha ifishi izafasha muri iryo robanura.

Ubuzima bw’urukwavu

Kimwe no mu bundi bworozi urukwavu rukenera ubuzima buzira umuze kugirango rurusheho gutanga umusaruro uhagije.

Urukwavu rufite ubuzima bwiza ruba rugaragaza ibimenyetso bikurikira:

  • Ijisho rikerebutse n’urwoya yuryamye kandi ruyaga;
  • Amatwi ahagaze ntagihushi kiriho;
  • Rutagaragaza akamyira ku mazuru;
  • Amaboko n’inda y’amase bifite isuku

Inyandiko yateguwe na NSHIMIYIMANA Arcade (anshimiyimana@yeanrwanda.org) hifashishijwe imfashanyigisho za MINAGRI

 

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