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NIYIGABA  Etienne

2015-03-25 18:19:02

Ingurube: Tumenye amoko yazo, uko zororwa kijyambere n'ibiryo byazo

Ingurube: Tumenye uko zororwa

Akamaro ko korora ingurube 

Mu matungo yose yororerwa mu rugo, ingurube ni ryo tungo ribyaza umusaruro utubutse ibyo iba yariye kurusha ayandi matungo, kubera ko uko irya ari na ko yiyongera ibiro byinshi kandi vuba; ni ukuvuga ko ibiryo byose iriye biyiyoboka.
Ingurube irya ibiryo byose uyihaye : ibisigazwa byo mu gikoni, ibiryo bikomoka ku bikatsi, ibituruka ku mavuta, ku miceri, ku masukari, ku bworozi bw’amafi kandi bikayigirira akamaro. Ibyo bishobora kuzuzwa n’inyama, ibyatsi, ibinyampeke n’imbuto.
Ingurube imwe n’ibibwana byayo bishobora kugera ku musaruro munini ku mwaka iyo ari ubwoko bwiza kandi zigaburirwa neza. Ingurube ishobora gutanga ibiro by’inyama bingana n’igihumbi na magana atandatu mu mwaka (kg 1.600).

Amoko y’ingurube yororerwa mu Rwanda
1. Ubwoko bw’ingurube nyarwanda: ingurube nyarwanda igira uruhu rw’umukara, rimwe na rimwe uvanze n’amabara y’umweru. Agahanga ni kagufi, ikinwa ni kirekire, amatwi ni matoya akaba yemye cyangwa aryamye ariko ntatendera. Uruti rwayo ni ruto, amaguru ni maremare kandi afite umubyimba muto.
Ubu bwoko burwanya indwara, bwihanganira ubushyuhe, bwemera indyo iyo ari yo yose.
Ubwo bwoko bw’ingurube bubwagura hagati y’ibibwana 8-10, bubwagura kabiri mu mwaka. Urubyaro rwa mbere ruboneka ingurube ifite umwaka n’igice (amezi 18) cyangwa imyaka ibiri (amezi 24). Iyo ngurube ikura buhoro, igira ibiro 120 yujuje umwaka n’igice. Inenge yayo yindi ni uko iyo ikuze igira ibinure byinshi, bigatuma umusaruro ugabanuka, na yo igata agaciro.

2. Ubwoko bw’ingurube zifite ibara ryera (Large White): ubwo bwoko bufite uruhu rwera, agahanga kanini gacuritse, ikinwa kinini, amatwi ni manini kandi arahagaze ; bufite umubiri munini ugizwe n’inyama nyinshi, amaguru yabwo ni manini kuko agizwe n’inyama nyinshi. Ubwo bwoko bugerageza kurwanya indwara, ariko busaba kugaburirwa neza cyane.
Ubwo bwoko bw’ingurube bubwagura hagati y’ibibwana 10-12, kabiri mu mwaka. Iyo ngurube ibwagura ubwa mbere ifite amezi 12, ikura vuba, igira ibiro 70 ku mezi 5, itanga umusaruro w’inyama mwiza cyane, ariko ikenera isuku no kugaburirwa neza cyane.
3. Ubwoko bwitwa Landrace (soma Landiresi): na bwo bufite uruhu rwera, agahanga karekare kandi kabyimbye, amatwi manini atendera. Umubiri wayo ni muremure ugereranyije n’ingurube y’ibara ryera (Large White).
Ubwo bwoko ntibufite ubushobozi buhagije bwo kurwanya indwara ariko umusaruro ni mwiza cyane kurusha n’uw’ingurube y’ibara ryera (Large White). Umubiri w’iyo ngurube ni muremure haba mu butambike cyangwa mu buhagarike.
4. Andi moko y’ibyimanyi
Large White+Inyarwanda• : Irwanya indwara kandi itanga umusaruro ushimishije iyo igaburiwe neza.
Large White+Landrace• + Duroc: Ubwo bwoko buherutse kugera mu Rwanda buturutse muri Irlande (soma Irilande) burwanya indwara kandi butanga umusaruro mwiza.
Ikiraro cy’Ingurube 
Mu kiraro hakenerwa umwanya wo kwinyagamburiramo, umwuka mwiza, isuku, ahantu hakomeye kandi hari n’umuyaga.
Ibipimo by’ikiraro
Imbyeyi n’ibibwana byayo : m-2 10
Inyagazi : m-2 2,5
Imfizi : m-2 15
Ingurube zikonnye : m-2 2
Ikiraro gishobora kubakwa n’ibiti mu mwanya w’matafari ahiye hasi agakoresha beto ku bipimo bingana n’umufuka 1 w’isima ku mifuka 2 y’umucanga n’imifuka 3 y’amabuye mato mato. Ushyiramo ubuhaname kugira ngo amaganga ajye asohoka aho

Imbehe n’igikoresho cyo kunyweramo
Imbehe n’igikoresho cyo kunyweramo bigomba kuba bikozwe mu giti gikomeye. Ibyiza ni ukubikora mu giti kiremereye ku buryo ingurube itagisunika ngo gihirime igihe cyose ishakiye. Ibyo bikorwa mu ishusho y’umuvure mutoya.
Imirire y’ingurube
Ubwatsi bugaburirwa ingurube bugomba kuba bworoshye, bukiri butoto; indyo igomba kuba ifite intungamubiri zose za ngombwa ingurube ikenera.
Indyo igomba kuba iseye cyangwa ikasemo uduce duto duto kuko amenyo y’ingurube aba atarakomera kugeza ku mezi atatu. Muri rusange, igifu cy’ingurube kiroroshye ntabwo gikomeye nk’icy’inka, ihene cyangwa intama. Iyo ndyo igomba kuba ikungahaye ku munyu wa fosifore na kalisiyumu, kugira ngo amagufa y’ingurube akomere.
Amoko atandukanye y’ibiryo bigaburirwa ingurube
A. Ibiryo bisanzwe bigaburirwa ingurube ariko bidatuma zikura vuba
1. Ibisigazwa byo mu gikoni:
2. Ubwatsi: amakoma cyangwa insina; birazikomerera ariko ingurube zirabyihanganira iyo zongerewe ibindi biryo.
– Ibinyampeke: ibigorigori, tiribusakumu (tripsacum laxum), setariya, penisetumu (pennisetum), ariko bitangwa bikiri bitoto ni ukuvuga bitararaba.
– Ibinyamisogwe: desimodiyumu (desmodium), Mukuna, sitilozantese (stylosantes), kaliyandara (caliandra), luzerine (luzerne), n’ibindi birakenerwa cyane kuko bitanga inyubakamubiri ( protéines) zituma ingurube zikura vuba.
3. Ibisigazwa byo mu nganda zitunganya ibikomoka ku buhinzi: ibisigazwa by’ingano n’iby’ibigori, ariko kubera ko bikomera cyane, bikoreshwa inshuro nke, bivangwa mu biryo ku rugero rwa 1/3.

ingurube 2

B. Ibiryo bifite intungamubiri zuzuye

– Ibinyampeke: ibigori , umuceri…;
– Ibinyamisogwe: amasaka, soya, ibishyimbo, amashaza…;
– Ibinyabijumba: ibijumba, ibirayi, imyumbati, ibisheke…;
– Ibisigazwa mu bihingwa: ibisigazwa by’ipamba, iby’ubunyobwa, melase (Mellasse)…;
– Ifu y’inyama, y’amaraso, y’amagufa, y’amafi…;
– Intungamubiri…
Ibigize iyo ndyo muri rusange :
– Ibitanga ingufu ni 70%
– Ibyubaka umubiri 15%
– Ibitanga vitamini n’ibikomeza amagufa ni 2%.
Hashobora gukoreshwa ishwagara n’amagufa n’ibishishwa by’amagi bimaze gutwikwa kandi biseye, cyane ku bibwana. Iyo ifu y’amaraso n’amafi bibuze, hakoreshwa ibyatsi bikungahaye mu ntungamubiri. Ni yo mpamvu gutera uduti nka Kaliyandara (Calliandra calothyrsus), Sesibaniya (Sesbania), lesena (Leucaena leucocephala) mu murima bigira akamaro.
Ibishishwa by’imyumbati, by’ibijumba bigomba guhabwa ingurube bitetse.
Kuva ingurube igejeje ku biro 70 igipimo cy’ibiryo ntikigomba kurenza ibiro 2,4 kugira ngo idakomeza kwiyongera ibinure.
Kubungabunga Ubuzima bw’ingurube
Kurinda ayo matungo indwara.
– Ingurube zigomba kororerwa ahantu hasukuye;
– Umworozi agomba kurwanya inzoka n’udukoko two ku mubiri;
– Ingurube zigomba gusasirwa hakoreshejwe ishinge cyangwa ibarizo. Aho iryama hagomba kuba hacuramye kugira ngo amaganga amanuke yoye kureka aho iryama.
Indwara zikunze kugaragara mu ngurube
1. Udukoko ku ruhu
dutera ingurube kwishima cyane ku buryo yikuba cyangwa yishima cyane kugeza aho ikomerekeye. Iyo ndwara irandura cyane, igomba kuvurwa ikigaragara. Iyo ndwara iterwa n’udukoko twitwa «Psoroptes» cyangwa «Sarcoptes». Mu kuvura iyo ndwara, hakoreshwa cyane umuti witwa «Amitix» cyangwa «Ivermectine».
2. Inzoka z’imbere mu mubiri: inzoka mbi ni asikarisi na teniya.
Uburyo bwo kuzirwanya
Asikarisi
– Ahari isima, hagomba kozwa buri munsi;
– Guha inyagazi imiti y’inzoka hasigaye iminsi 15 ngo ibwagure, kugira ngo itanduza ibibwana;
– Koza ingurube mbere y’uko ibwagura;
– Guha ibibwana imiti y’inzoka ibyumweru bibiri, hanyuma ukongera buri mezi abiri n’igice;
– Kongera guha inyagazi imiti icukije.
Imiti ikunze gukoreshwa ni «Albendasol», «Ivermectine», ni yo miti ivura inzoka nyinshi icya rimwe, ariko hari n’indi nka «Piperazine» (ivura asikarisi gusa), «Mebendazol» (ivura asikarisi, n’inzoka zitwa strongle).
Kuri teniya
Imiti ikoreshwa ni «Ivermectine», «Albendasol» na «Yomezan».
3. Rouget (soma ruje) : Iyo ndwara iterwa na mikorobi, ishobora
kwanduza umuntu n’ayandi matungo rimwe na rimwe.
Ibimenyetso byayo ni ibi bikurikira: ingurube igira umuriro mwinshi, kugeza kuri dogere 42; iraryama ntiyongere kurya.
Mu bice by’umubiri byoroha nk’amatwi, ku matako no ku nda, hazaho ibiziga by’amaraso, n’amabara atukura, ayo mabara asibangana gato iyo bayakanze n’urutoki. Ingurube iyo itavuwe ipfa nyuma y’iminsi 2-4. Iyo babaze ingurube yishwe n’iyo ndwara imbere mu nda hose haba hari utudomo dutukura .
Mu mpeshyi, iyo ndwara igaragaza ibimenyetso by’umweru aho gutukura. Iyo ngurube ipfa nyuma y’amasaha 12-24. Ingurube n’iyo yaba ikize ishobora kurwara indwara y’umutima cyangwa igakomeza kubyimba amaguru.
Icyitonderwa: iyo ndwara ntikunda gufata ibibwana, ifata ingurube zifite hagati y’amezi atatu n’imyaka ibiri.
Uko umworozi abyifatamo: iyo indwara igaragaye, umworozi akoresha «Penicilline», akenshi iba ihagije. Imiti igizwe na Kalisiyumu na yo ni ngombwa kuko ifasha mu kongera gukomeza amagufa yahungabanyijwe n’indwara. Habaho kandi n’urukingo kuva ku mezi 2. Inyagazi buri gihe uko icukije igomba gukingirwa, imfizi ikingirwa buri mezi 6. Umworozi yirinda gukingira inyagazi zihaka.
4. Guhitwa kw’ibibwana by’ingurube
Uko guhitwa guterwa n’impamvu zikurikira :
– Kurya nabi,Kororera habi, Mikorobi
Uburyo bwo kurwanya impiswi :
Umworozi agomba koza inyagazi no gutera imiti mu nzu mbere y’uko ibwagura kugira ngo ibibwana bidahura na mikorobi nyinshi.
Guha inyagazi umuti w’inzoka kugira ngo itazanduza ibibwana byayo.
Gutuganya akazu k’ibibwana gashyushye, aho byaba mu gihe cy’iminsi 15.
Gutera ibibwana urushinge rwa «infero» ku munsi wa 15, «ferkobsang » ku munsi wa 15 kugira ngo babifashe gurwanya ibihe bibi igihe cy’icyumweru cya kabiri n’igihe cy’icuka. Kugaburira neza inyagazi kugira ngo ibibwana bibone amagurubegurube ahagije.
Kudahubukira gucutsa ibibwana :
– Gukura ingurube mu nzu ibibwana bikayisigaramo
– Kudashyira ibibwana by’ingurube byinshi mu nzu imwe.

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