This Month We Celebrate

Nyirabagwiza Magnifique: “Chicken farming: Quick money, short period with a small house”

Our Newsletter

Subscribe our Newsletter and receive notifications of new posts by email.

NIYIGABA  Etienne

2015-09-23 13:45:20

Indwara n'ibyonnyi by'intoryi n'uburyo birwanywa

1.ANTARAKINOZE (anthracnose)
IKIYITERA
Iterwa n’agahumyo kitwa Colletotrichum melongenae.
Aka gahumyo gakunda gufata intoryi zifashwe nabi. Iyo ndwara yiyongera cyane mu gihe cy’ubuhehere bukabije n’ubushyuhe buri hagati ya dogere 21 na 30

IBIMENYETSO
•    Ku mababi  haboneka ibibara bijya gusa n’ikigina kijimye ariko kandi munsi y’amababi usanga ibyo bibara byiganje ku miyoboro ijyana ibitunga igihingwa.
•    Ku mbuto usanga ikibara ry’ikigina rizengurutswe n’ibara  ry’umukara.Ahari ibi bibara hasa n’ahinjiye imbere mu rubuto. Ububore ku mbuto buba bugaragara. Iyo hari ubuhehere bwinshi ububore bufata ibara ry’ibihogo. Ibyo bibara biza ari bito bikagenda bikura, bikiteranya bikabyara ikibara kimwe kinini.
•    Rimwe na rimwe imbuto zafashwe ziruma, zikaba umukara, zigahunguka.

UKO IKWIRAKWIRA

Imbuto zirwaye, ibisigazwa by’ibihingwa, Umuyaga, imvura n’amazi yo kuvomerera  bikwirakwiza iyo ndwara.
UKO BAYIRWANYA
•    Gusimburanya ibihingwa mu murima
•    Kwirinda gutera ibinyamisogwe mu murima wagaragayemo ubwo burwayi mu gihe kitari munsi y’imyaka ibiri
•    Gutera imbuto z’indobanure
•    Gukoresha imiti nka bénomyl yica utwo duhumyo ku mbuto mbere yo kuzitera
•     Kutagenda mu murima harimo ubukonje cyangwa urume
•    Gukura  ibisigazwa by’ibiti by’intoryi mu murima no gutwika ibyarwaye

  1. KIRABIRANYA(Bacterial wilt)

IKIYITERA
Kirabiranya y’intoryi iterwa n’uduhumyo  twitwa Ralstonia solanacearum. Hari amoko menshi ya Ralstonia solanacearum kandi ubwoko bumwe bushobora gufata ibihingwa birenze kimwe.
IBIMENYETSO
Ibimenyetso bitangira kugaragara ku mababi mato yo hejuru akirimo kubumbuka.
•    Amababi araraba mu gihe cya ku manywa. Nyuma y’iminsi 2 kugera kuri 3 igiti kiruma cyose.
•    Amashami y’igiti aragwa
•    Imiyoboro izamukamo ibitunga igihingwa irifunga kandi iyo usatuye uruti usangamo utubara tw’umukara n’umushongi w’umuhondo
UKO BAYIRWANYA
•    Gusimburanya ibihingwa mu murima imyaka 5 kugeza kuri 7 bigabanya iyo ndwara
•    Kugabanya ubusharire bwo mu butaka hakoreshejwe ishwagara
•    Gutera umuti nka peracetic acid cyangwa hydrogen peroxide.
•    Gukoresha imbuto yihanganira iyo indwara
•    Kurwanya amashanya (nématodes)
•    Gukoresha ibikoresho bisukuye mu gihe cyo guhinga no gusarura

3. UDUHUNDUGURU/ INDA  (Aphids)

Ni udusimba tubamo amoko menshi atandukanwa n’amabara harimo Aphis craccivora , Aphis  Pomi. Dufata amoko menshi y’ibihingwa.
Inda zibyara nta ngabo zihuye nazo. Ingore itera amagi mu mubiri zikazasohora utwana. Inda ziyongera vuba cyane mu gihe cy’izuba. Inda ntizihanganira imvura nyinshi.

UKO ZANGIZA

Inda zifata ku mashami mato n’amababi. Zinyunyuza amazi mu gihingwa bigatuma amababi yihinarika, igihingwa ntigikure neza, umusaruro ukagabanuka.
Izo nda zivubura umushongi umeze nk’ubuki ku mababi no ku mashami mato, Ku mubiri waho twafashe haramatira bigakurura ubushishi n’uduhumyo tw’umukara dufataho, bikangiriza ubwiza bw’amababi n’imbuto. Utwo dukoko dushobora gukwirakwiza virusi z’ibihingwa.

UKO BAZIRWANYA

•    Gutera ubwoko bw’intoryi bwihanganira inda
•    Kudakoresha ifumbire irimo Azote nyinshi
•    Kudahohotera udusimba turya inda nk’udusurira, amavubi
•    Gukoresha imiti nka supérmethrine, bifenthrine, pyrimicarbe, Pyréthrine  yica inda
•    Gushyiraho imitego y’inda hakoreshejwe ubujeni n’ibitambaro by’umuhondo (ibara rikurura inda)
•    Kuvomereza amazi afite ingufu atuma inda zihunguka

4. ISAZI Y’UMWERU (Whitefly)
Ni isazi yitwa Bemisia tabaci irangwa n’amababa y’umweru, umutwe n’igihimba by’umuhondo. Hari amoko menshi nka Trialeurode vaporariorum, Aleyrodes proletella. Ingore itera amagi afite ibara ry’umweru agera ku 160, nyuma y’iminsi itanu kugera ku minsi icyenda havamo inyo. Izi sazi zibyara vuba cyane mu gihe cy’imvura. Zitinya umuyaga ushyushye.

UKO ZANGIZA

Izi sazi zikwirakwiza virusi nyinshi (Geminivirus, Closterovirus, Nepovirus, Carlavirus, Potyvirus) zitanga ibimenyetso binyuranye hakurikijwe ubwoko bw’igihingwa.
•    Amababi yariwe n’iyo sazi agaragaraho ububore
•    Izi sazi zisiga ku mababi umushongi  utuma uduhumyo tw’umukara dufataho
•    Amababi arihina kandi akaba mato bidasanzwe
•    Munsi  y’ikibabi uhasanga utwana tw’izi sazi dufite ibara ry’umuhondo

UKO BAYIRWANYA
•    Gusimburanya imyaka mu murima.
•    Kuvanaho ibihuru n’ibisigazwa by’ibihingwa bishobora gucumbikira iyo sazi.
•    Kumanika imitego y’umuhondo irimo kole yo kuzifata.
•    Gukoresha udusimba nka Macrolophus caliginosus, Encarsia na Eretmocerus n’uduhumyo nka  Beauveria and Bacillus genera n’amavubi
•    Gutera imiti nka midachloprid, Methomyl, Thiametoxam, igaterwa igihe cyo kurabya kw’intoryi.

5. INGONOKERA (Fruit worm)
Ingonokera ni ibyana by’ ibinyugunyugu bita Helicoverpa armigera (Heliothis armigera).
Ni ibinyugunyugu biguruka nijoro. Ingonokera ni ibyonnyi by’ibihingwa byinshi ahantu henshi ku isi. Ingonokera zona amababi, indabo n’imbuto by’intoryi. Ikinyugunyugu cy’ikigore gishobora gutera amagi 3000 mu gihe cyo kubaho kwacyo, gitera amagi nijoro gusa. Ku bushyuhe bugera kuri dogere 25, amagi avamo ingonokera nyuma y’iminsi 3. Ibinyugunyugu n’ingonokera bigira amabara anyuranye: ikigina, icyatsi, umuhondo. Ikinyugunyugu kibaho mu gihe cy’ibyumweru bitatu. Ingonokera ikuze igwa hasi ku butaka, akaba ariho yibera kugeza ibaye ikinyugunyugu.

UKO ZANGIZA
Zikunda kwangiza imbere mu mbuto. Ingonokera ushobora kuyibona ku giti, ariko kenshi yihisha imbere mu ndabo no mu mbuto. Indabo zirangirika, igiti ntikizane imbuto naho iyo ari imbuto zafashwe ubwiza buragabanuka kandi imbuto zishobora kubora no guhunguka

UKO BAZIRWANYA
•    Guterera igihe
•    Gutema ibyatsi byimeza bishobora kuba indiri y’ingonokera
•    Gukoresha imitego igabanya umubare ibinyugunyugu by’izo ngonokera.
•    Gusimburanya ibihingwa mu murima hirindwa gukurikiranya ibihingwa  iyo ngonokera ikunda gufata nk’inyanya, urusenda.
•    Gutera  ubwoko bwihanganira iyo ngonokera

6.    TIRIPUSI (Thrips)

Tiripusi igira amoko menshi atandukanye  arimo Frankliniella occidentalis na Palmi. Iyo ibihe ari byiza tiripusi ishobora gutera amagi inshuro zirenga 15 mu mwaka. Amagi ari ku mababi avamo ibishorobwa  nyuma y’iminsi 3. Nyuma y’icyumweru igishorobwa gihinduka tiripusi. Tiripusi Zikwirakwizwa n’imyambaro n’ibikoresho by’umuhinzi.

UKO ZANGIZA
Tiripusi yangiza intoryi mu gihe cy’izuba. Ibimenyetso bikunze kugaragara ni tiripusi zitera amagi mu mababi akaremererwa,  ibishorobwa birya amababi agasigara abonerana, imbuto z’intoryi zarumwe na tiripusi  usangaho amabara kandi zinamugaye. Tiripusi n’ibishorobwa byazo byona birundanije ku mababi bikarya amababi. Tiripusi ikwirakwiza virusi yitwa tospovirus ituma amababi yeruruka hanyuma akuma.

UKO BAZIRWANYA
•    Kubagara umurima hakurwamo ibyatsi bibi.
•    Ubutaka bugomba guhingwa nyuma yo gusarura.
•    Kwica ibishorobwa na tiripusi biri mu butaka no ku mababi.
•    Gutera kare  no gusiga intera ihagije hagati y’ibihingwa.
•    Gukoresha amoko y’intoryi yihanganira tiripusi.
•    Gukoresha imiti nka Malathion.
•    Gukoresha umuti ukomoka ku biti bya neem, ibireti,urusenda

7. IMUNGU Y’URUTI N’IMBUTO BY’INTORYI (Shoot and fruit borer)

Ni imungu yitwa Leucinodes orbonalis, iyo ikuze iba  ikinyugunyugu  kigira ibara ry’umweru harimo ibara ry’ikigina ku mababa. Ingore itera amagi y’umweru ari hagati y’icumi na mirongo itandatu ku dushami duto ,ku indabyo,hafi y’inkondo no munsi y’ibibabi. Ikinugunyugu gitera amagi mu gitondo akavamo inyo z’umweru.
Iyo igiti cy’intoryi gitangiye kuzana indabo n’imbuto ,urunyo rutobora tukanarya udushami duto,  indabyo cyangwa imbuto.

UKO ZANGIZA
•    Zitobora imbuto ugasanga hari utwobo duto ku mbuto tuzengurutswe n’ikibara cy’umukara
•    Twinjira imbere mu mbuto usanga hacukuwe harimo inyo zazo.
•    Utwobo duto ku mbuto kandi usangamo inyo zazo.

UKO BAYIRWANYA
•    Gukoresha ingemwe nziza zidafite iyo mungu
•    Gusimburanya ibihingwa  mu murima
•    Gutera imiti nka Sumicidin, Lannate, Sevin iragerageza kurwanya iyo mungu
•    Kuvanaho no gutwika amashami yumye, ibiti bishaje n’ingemye zafashwe n’imungu

Tubikesha NAEB

Related Articles | Izindi nkuru

Be the first to comment!