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NIYIGABA  Etienne

2016-07-15 20:10:13

Urutoki: indwara n'ibyonnyi n'uburyo birwanywa

Mu nkuru zacu ziheruka twabagejejeho uburyo bwo guhinga Urutoki kuburyo bwa kijyambere. Aha rero twabashakiye uburyo bwo kurinda urutoki rwawe ntiruhungabanywe n’indwara ndetse n’ibyonnyi nk’uko tubikesha Minisiteri y’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi mw’ishami ryayo rishinwe isakazamakuru.

Indwara z’ingenzi n’uburyo bwo Kuzirwanya

  1. Indwara ya Fizariyoze

Iyi ndwara iterwa n’agahumyo bita Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. cubense; insinayafashwe amakoma agenda ahinduka umuhondo uhereye kuyo hasi. Nyuma y’iminsi mike amakoma aruma maze agatendera ku mutumba, umwumba nawo uhita wuma. Iyo utemye umutumba usangamo ububore bugaragazwa n’amabara y’ikigina n’ayirabura. Iyi ndwara yibasira cyane ubwoko bw’insina za Kayinja, Gros michel, Kamaramasenge n’izindi.

Guyikumira no kuyirwanya : kurandura no gutaba insina zose zafashwe, zigasimbuzwa ubwoko bwihangana (nibura nyuma y’umwaka) nk’intuntu, intokatoki, inyamunyu, n’izindi cyangwa indi myaka; kudatera insina zirwaye.

Icyitonderwa: Iyi ndwara ishobora kumara igihe kirekire mu butaka.

  1. Kirabiranya y’urutoki

Iyi ndwara iterwa na Bagiteri bita Banana Xanthomonas Campestris. Indwara ya kirabiranya (bagiteriyoze) iterwa n’agakoko ko mu bwoko bwa xanthomonas. Insina yafashwe, amakoma yazo ararabirana, umutumba wayo avamo amashyira y’umuhondo, amabere atangira kuneka atarakura; iyo umanyuye ibere, usangamo ibara ry’ikigina imbere; umwanana urabora kandi ukwuma. Indwara ikwirakwizwa n’inzuki zitara ubuki, imibyare irwaye n’ibikoresho bidasukuye.

Uko bayirwanya: guca imwana ukoresheje isando amabere yanyuma akimara gusohoka mu mwanana; gutera imibyare myiza nk’ivuye muri laboratoire; gusukura ibikoresho n’umuliro, gutema no gutaba insina zirwaye.

  1. Karadosiporiyoze

Iyi ndwara iterwa n’agahumyo bita Cladosporium musae; iyi ndwara igaragazwa n’amabara maremare y’ikigina kivanze n’umukara ku makoma. Amakoma yafashwe cyane aruma. Ikunze kugaragara mu gihe cy’imvura ivaze n’ubuhehere bwinshi. Gukumira no kurwanya: kwirinda gutera insina uzegeranyije; kwicira insina, buri kwezi , umwuka n’urumuri bigatemberamo neza; gufumbira urutoki rugahora rutohagiye no gutera ubwoko bukunda kurwanya iyo ndwara

Ibyonnyi n’uburyo bwo kubirwanya

Imungu y’insina

Imungu y’insina bita Cosmopolites sordidus, ni agakoko gasa n’umukara gafite umunwa muremure ko mu bwoko bw’ikivumvuri. Icyana (igishorobwa) ni umweru, umutwe wacyo usa n’umuhondo uvanze n’ikigina, nta maguru kigira. Nicyo gitobagura imyobo mu nguri. Iyo imyobo imaze kuba myinshi, umuyaga utari mwinshi utuma insina yirindimura hasi. Amakoma y’insina yafashwe cyane ahinduka umuhondo agapfunyarara nyuma akuma. Insina zamunzwe, zigaragara neza mu gihe cy’impeshyi n’igihe zitangiye kwana. Ikunda kandi yororoka neza kandi vuba ahantu hashyuha.

Gukumira no kurwanya: gukorera neza urutoki; gutera imibyare ivuye mu rutoki rutarwaye; gutera bundi bushya nyuma y’imyaka nibura itatu aharimbuwe izari zafashwe; gutega imungu: batemagura umutumba bamaze gucaho igitoke bakawurekera hasi kugira ngo ukurure imungu. Nyuma bakawukura mu rutoki bakawutwika; kurimbura inguri zishaje no kutongeramo insina mu rutoki igihe rukirimo izafashwe n’imungu; gutwikiriza igitaka inguri bamaze gutemaho igitoki kugira ngo imungu ibure aho itera amagi.

Iyi nkuru tuyikesha imfashanyigisho za Minisiteri y’Ubuhinzi n’ubworozi.

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