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NIYIGABA  Etienne

2017-05-27 05:06:02

Tumenye ubutaka duhinga imitere yabwo n’amafumbire ubutaka bukeneye mu Rwanda

Tumenye ubutaka duhinga imitere yabwo n’amafumbire ubutaka bukeneye mu Rwanda

Gusobanukirwa n’ibimenyetso biranga ibura ry’intungagihingwa bifasha umuhinzi kumenya ubwoko bw’ifumbire yakongerwa mu butaka kugira ngo yongere umusaruro w’ibihingwa.

Kubera ubutaka buto bw’u Rwanda n’imirima mito (impuzandengo y’igice cya hegitari), abahinzi basabwa kongera umusaruro kugira ngo n’inyungu ziva mu buhinzi ziyongere. Byakorwa gute? Kongera no kunoza ikoreshwa ry’amafumbire mvaruganda bifite uruhare runini mu gusubiza iki kibazo. Muri iki gihe, abahinzi bo mu Rwanda bakoresha kuri hegitari kimwe cya cumi (1/10) cy’ifumbire mvaruganda ugerereranyije n’ikoreshwa n’abahinzi mu bihugu byo muri Aziya ku butaka buto nk’ubw’abahinzi bo mu Rwanda. Ariko mu by’ukuri kongera ingano y’amafumbire asanzwe akoreshwa (Ire, DAP na NPK) ntabwo bihagije.

Ibipimo by’ubutaka mu Rwanda byerekana ko ubutaka budakeneye gusa intungagihingwa za Azoti, Fosifori na Potasiyumu (ziboneka muri Ire, DAP na NPK). Kandi na none ibyo bipimo byagaragaje ko akenshi ubutaka bubura imwe cyangwa nyinshi muri izi ntungagihingwa eshanu zikurikira: Sufure (Sulfur), Boroni (Boron), Zenke (Zinc), Umuringa (Copper) na Manyeziyumu (Magnesium).

Abahinzi bamenya bate intungagihingwa zibura mu mirima yabo kugira ngo umusaruro wiyongere?

Amakuru mu rwego rw’Akarere (region): Intambwe ya mbere ku bahinzi ni ukureba amakuru rusange ku butaka cyangwa ku mirima yo mu karere baherereyemo:

Ibipimo by’ubutaka: Muri 2014, IFDC yasuzumishije ibipimo 1000 by’ubutaka bivuye hirya no hino mu Rwanda. Ibisubizo by’iryo suzuma bikubiye mu rutonde rw’amakarita icumi yerekana aho ubutaka bukennye muri imwe muri za ntungagihingwa umunani, bigendanye n’indi miterere itandukanye y’ubutaka . RAB na IFDC byashyize ahagaragara aya makarita mu mfashanyigisho ku mikoreshereze y’amafumbire mu mirima y’icyitegererezo. Iyo mfashanyigisho yahawe abacuruzi b’inyongeramusaruro bose, abafashamyumvire b’ishuri ry’abahinzi mu murima n’abandi bantu bakorana n’abahinzi.

Imirima y’igerageza ry’amafumbire: Muri 2013-15, RAB na IFDC byashyizeho imirima myinshi y’igerageza mu Rwanda hose. Iyo mirima y’igerageza yerekana ko imvange zinyuranye z’intungagihingwa zishobora kongera umusaruro cyane. Ubu bwiyongere bw’umusaruro bukaba bushobora guhinduka bitewe n’uturere dutandukanye.

Amakuru yihariye ajyanye n’ahantu: Amakuru yavuye mu isuzuma ry’ubutaka mu karere (region) runaka n’ayavuye mu mirima y’igerageza ry’amafumbire ntabwo ahagije kugira ngo umuhinzi amenye intungagihingwa zikenewe ku murima we wihariye. Ubutaka bw’u Rwanda ntibutandukanira gusa ku turere ahubwo no mu ntera ntoya usanga bunyuranye. Ubutaka bwo ku mpinga y’imisozi muri rusange burera cyane, uburumbuke bugenda bugabanuka uko uva ku mpinga y’umusozi umanuka, mu gihe ubutaka bwo mu nkuka no mu gishanga bwo buba bufite uburumbuke burushijeho. Ubutaka burushaho kugunduka uko imyaka ihita ukoresha amafumbire y’ubwoko bumwe ku gihingwa kimwe

None se agendeye kuri iyi mihindagurikire y’ubutaka bw’ahantu, umuhinzi yamenya ate intungagihingwa zidahagije bituma umusaruro uba muke mu murima we?

Arebeye ku mababi, imbuto n’ibindi bice by’igihingwa: umuhinzi ashobora kumenya ibimenyetso biranga ibura ry’intungagihingwa. Ibihingwa bifite ikibazo cy’intungagihingwa zidahagije byerekana ibimenyetso byihariye kuri iyo ntungagihingwa idahagije, nk’imirongo (ingenge), ku mababi mashya cyangwa ashaje.

Imirima y’igerageza no kwigira ku makosa: umuhinzi ashobora kongera ubumenyi bwe binyuze mu mirima y’igerageza no kwigira ku makosa, abaturanyi bagahererekanya amakuru ku buryo bwongera umusaruro n’ubutawongera. Kubera urusobe rw’ibigize ubutaka n’ibiberamo, kuzamura umusaruro ntibituruka ku bumenyi gusa ahubwo binajyana n’uburyo bw’imikorere.

Gupima ubutaka: umuhinzi ashobora kujyana ubutaka bwe muri laboratwari ngo bupimwe. Bimwe mu bipimo by’ubutaka birahendutse, nko gupima ubusharire, rero byagombye kugezwa ku bahinzi. Ariko kubera uburyo gupima ubutaka bihenze ku ntungagihingwa zitandukanye, umuhinzi ashobora kubikora gake cyane gashoboka.

Iyo umuhinzi amaze kumenya intungagihingwa zibura, ashobora gutekereza ku buryo yazibona akazikoresha. Ifumbire y’imborera (ituruka ku matungo, ku byatsi n’ibisigazwa by’umusaruro) nayo itanga zimwe mu ntungagihingwa kandi z’ingirakamaro ku butaka. Ariko ingano y’imborerera yakenerwa kugira ngo itange intungagihingwa zose zikenewe kandi ku rugero ruhagije ntabwo byoroshye kuyibona.

 

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