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2017-06-13 18:21:03

Uko wamenya ibura ry’intungagihingwa igihingwa gikenera cyane (NPK) muri rusange

Uko wamenya ibura ry’intungagihingwa igihingwa gikenera cyane (NPK) muri rusange

Izo ntungagihingwa ni Azoti (N), Fosifori (P) na Potasiyumu cyangwa Potasi (K) kuko igihingwa kizikenera cyane, zkaba ari nazo zikunda kubura mu butaka kenshi iyo budafumbirwa bigateza ikibazo ku gihingwa ntigitange umusaruro cyari kitezweho. Umuhinzi ni ngombwa ko amenya uko igihingwa kibura izi ntungagihingwa kiba kimeze bitewe n’izibura mu butaka maze akabasha kuzongeramo . Twifashishije inyandiko “Duhinge Kijyambere, agatabo ka 2” yateguwe na Minisiteri y’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi na “ Ibimenyetso biranga ibura ry’intungagihingwa” cyanditswe na IFDC tubagejejeho iyi nyandiko dushimira n’abo tuvuze bagize uruhare mu gutegura izi nyandiko zombi.

  1. Azoti (N)

Azoti mu kimera

Nubwo Azoti iba mu mwuka wo mu kirere ari nyinshi (79%), ishobora gukoreshwa n’ibihingwa gusa iyo ibonetse mu buryo bwa Nitarati (NO3) cyangwa mu buryo bwa Amoniyumu (NH4). Bagiteri za rizobiyumu ziba mu mizi y’ibinyamisogwe zishobora guhindura Azoti iba mu mwuka wo mu kirere maze igakoreshwa n’igihingwa.

Azoti ni intungagihingwa y’ingenzi ikenerwa n`ikimera ku rugero ruri hejuru. Ni intungagihingwa y’ingenzi iboneka muri kororofili (itangabara ry’icyatsi), mu byubaka umubiri nka poroteyine n’ibindi bigize igihingwa. Azoti itanga ibara ry’icyatsi kibisi cyijimye ku bihingwa kandi ikongera imikuririre y’ibihingwa. Yongera ubwiza bw’amababi, imikorere y’amafufu aboneka mu biribwa ndetse na poroteyine ziboneka mu ntete z’ibihingwa n’ubwatsi bw’amatungo. Ibimera bigira Azoti iri ku rugero rwa 1 - 5% mu buremere. Azoti irenze ibipimo igihingwa gikeneye ituma igihingwa gitohagira cyane bigatuma gishobora kwibasirwa n’ ibyonyi n’ indwara nyinshi.

Ibimenyetso bigaragaza ibihingwa bibura Azoti

  • Amababi yo hasi ashaje aba umuhondo.

  • Iyo ibura rya azoti rikabije, bigaragazwa n’utudomo tuza ku isonga no mu mpande z`ikibabi tugana hagati mu kibabi kandi igihingwa kikagwingira.

  • Ibihingwa bidafite azoti ihagije biragwingira, bikarabya kandi bikazana imbuto imburagihe; bisobanura ko igihingwa kizana imbuto kitarakura neza.

  • Ibi bituma umusaruro n’ubwiza bwawo bugabanuka.

  1. Fosifori (P)

Fosifori mu bimera

Fosifori ni intungagihingwa iza ku mwanya wa kabiri nyuma ya Azoti mu ntungagihingwa zikenerwa ku rugero ruri hejuru mu mikurire myiza y’ibihingwa. Igira akamaro mu kwiyongera k’uturemangingo, no mu mikurire y’imbuto. Ituma imizi ya mbere ikura neza, ituma amababi yiyongera, ituma igihingwa kibyara, ituma kirabya n’umusaruro w’impeke ukaba mwinshi kandi mwiza. Fosifori kandi yihutisha ukwera kw’igihingwa. Fosifori ituma imizi yiyongera kandi ikaba miremire bigatuma ivoma neza amazi n’intungagihingwa. Ituma kandi igihingwa gifata mu butaka neza bikakirinda kugwa. Urugero rwa Fosifori mu gihingwa ruri hagati ya 0.1-0.4%.

Ibimenyetso biranga ibihingwa bibura Fosofori

  • Ibara ry’ubururu, cyangwa umwura (move) cyangwa rijya gutukura n`umuhondo muke ku bibabi byo hasi (ibikuze cyane); imikurire rusange y`igihingwa iradindira (iratinda).

  • Imizi y’igihingwa ikura nabi kandi ikaba migufi.

3. Potasiyumu (K)

Potasiyumu mu bimera

Bitandukanye n’izindi ntungagihingwa, Potasiyumu ntifatana n’izindi, ahubwo iguma yonyine igafasha igihingwa kuringaniza imisemburo, ikoreshazuba (photosynthesis), gukoresha amazi neza, gukora amido (amafufu) ndetse na poroteyine ku gihingwa. Ibihingwa bigira Potasiyumu ku rugero rumwe na Azoti ariko ibihingwa bitanga umusaruro uri hejuru bikenera Potasiyumu nyishi kurusha Azoti. Ubutaka bwinshi bugira Potasiyumu iri ku rugero rwo hejuru ariko igice gito cyayo nicyo gishobora gukoreshwa n’igihingwa.

Ibimenyetso biranga ibihingwa bibura Potasiyumu

Kimwe mu bimenyetso biranga ibura rya Potasiyumu mu gihingwa ni:

  • ugupfunyarara no kubabuka kw’impera z’amababi y’igihingwa.

  • Kuko Potasiyumu yimuka mu gihingwa, ibura ryayo rigaragarira mbere na mbere ku mababi ashaje.

  • Ibihingwa bibura Potasiyumu bikura buhoro kandi bikagira imizi mike itameze neza.

  • Inkondo z’amababi zigira imbaraga nke kandi akenshi zikagondama. Intete n’imbuto biba bitoya kandi bikumagara;

  • ibihingwa ntibibasha kwihanganira indwara n’ibura ry’amazi.

  • Ibihingwa bibura Potasiyumu bifatwa n’indwara vuba kandi bikagira umusaruro muke w’imbuto kandi utari mwiza.

NIYIGABA Etienne (eniyigaba@yeanrwanda.org)

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