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2017-06-26 10:02:01

Gusasira ibihingwa hakoreshejwe amashashi yabugenewe.

Gusasira ibihingwa hakoreshejwe amashashi yabugenewe.

Gusasira ni uburyo bwo gutwikira ubutaka kugirango bumere neza bituma ibihingwa bikura neza, bikanabyara umusaruro mwiza. Muri make ni ugutwikira ubutaka. Mu gihe isaso yakunze gukoreshwa cyane ari amababi y’ibihingwa, ibisigazwa by’ibyasaruwe, ifumbire y’imborera byakoreshejwe kuva mu myaka yo hambere hasigaye hariho ubundi buryo bwo gukoresha isaso ikorewe mu nganda . Ibi byakozweho ubushakashatsi bwinshi bugaragaza ko iyi saso ifite ubushobozi mu gufasha ubutaka kumera neza. Uyigereranyije n’indi saso , iyi saso y’amashashi yabugenewe izwiho kudahitisha amazi cg ngo amazi ayinjiremo bivuzeko burya uko izuba rivuye hari amazi ava mu butaka ajya mu kirere ku buryo bw’umwuka, ubwo bushyuhe butuma ubutaka buta amazi menshi cyane ubutaka bugakakara bukuma. Iyi saso rero ituma amazi yo mu butaka agumamo yose.

Ibyiza by’isaso y’amashashi yabugenewe

  • Ntago ihitisha amazi
  • Ituma mu gihe hashyushye amazi atajya mu kirere mu buryo bw’umwuka avuye mu butaka hanyuma igatuma ubutaka buhora butoshye.
  • Ituma umuhinzi ashyira ifumbire aho ikwiye kujya bikagabanya intungagihingwa zimanuka mu butaka ntizifatwe n’igihingwa
  • Ituma ubutaka butinjirwamo n’udukoko twangiza imyaka
  • Isaso itabonerana ituma ibyatsi by’ibyonnyi bitamera kuko nta rumuri biba byabonye
  • Iyo isaso ibonerana nk’indorerwamo ituma udusimba twona imyaka duhunga uwo murima
  • Iyi saso ituma ubutama bukomeza gushyuha bigafasha imbuto kumera vuba ndetse n’ibihingwa bikagira imizi vuba vuba
  • Iyo ubutaka busasiye gutya bituma ubutaka bukomera kugira imiterere imwe mu gihe cyose igihingwa kimara mu murima Iyi saso iyo yasasijwe imbuto cg imboga, ituma imbuto zihiye zihunguka zitangirika ngo zise nabi cyangwa zibore vuba , ituma kandi imboga zikomeza gusa neza mu gihe zimara mu murima cyose
  • Iyi saso ituma igihingwa gikura neza kuko nta byatsi bikura iruhande rwacyo kandi ubutaka ntibuhingwa ngo hahungabanywe imizi yacyo.
  • Iyi saso igabanya isuri mu murima
  • Ugereranyije n’isaso isanzwe, Iyi saso imara igihe kinini.

Ubutaka bugumana ubuhehere

Amashashi yabugenewe bitewe n’uko adahitisha amazi/ubuhehere ntatuma amazi ava mu butaha ngo ajye mu kirere, iyo hashyushye amashashi atuma amazi ashaka kuzamuka mu buryo bw’umwuka abura aho anyura hanyuma akaza kongera kw’ikoramo ibitonyanga imbere muri iyo shashi bitewe n’ubushyuhe burimo imbere akaza kongera kugwa ku butaka nk’ibitonyanga

Iyo wuhira umurima wawe, iyi saso ituma amazi adashira vuba mu butaka hanyuma umuhinzi akuhira gake.

Amazi yuhiwe cyangwa ay’imvura yinjira mu butaka binyuze mu myanya yatobowe mu mashashi aho igihingwa kiba cyarazamukiye cyangwa akinjirira ahandi hadatwikiriye .

Kurwanya ibyatsi bidakenewe mu murima

Amashashi yirabura ntago atuma imirasire y’izuba yinjira mu butaka bigatuma nta gihingwa kiri munsi y’iyo shashi gikura. Ubundi bwoko butari ubw’umukara bushobora gutuma hari ibyatsi bimera ariko ntago bikura .

Imbogamizi muri ubu buryo

  • Iyi saso irahenda ugereranyije n’isaso isanzwe y’ibyatsi n’imborera
  • Ibihingwa bito bishobora gutwikwa n’ubushyushe bwinshi buri mu butaka
  • Gushyiraho ifumbire ku gihingwa biragorana nyuma yo gutwikira
  • Iyi saso iyo uhinga ahantu hanini bisaba ko wifashisha imashini mu kuyishyiraho ariko ushobora no kukoresha intoki bisanzwe gusa bisaba abantu bagufasha mu kuyishyiraho.
  • Amazi kuko atinjira mu butaka ashobora gutemba
  • Bishobora kwangiza ibidukikije iyo hakoreshejwe ishashi zitabugenewe .
  • Iyo ubuhinzi bukoresha imashini biragorana mu kunyuzamo imashini
  • Iyo wakoresheje amashashi yoroshye cyane uyakoresha igihembwe cy’ihinga kimwe.
  • Amashashi ashobora kuba imbogamizi ku bwatsi bw’amatungo.

Ubwoko bw’amashashi akoreshwa

Ubwoko bunyuranye bw’amashashi yarageragejwe mu myaka ya za 1960. LDPE (low-density polyethylene) , HDPE (high-density polyethylene) na PVC zose zarageragejwe ariko zigaragaza itandukaniro hagati yazo. Kugeza ubu Amashashi akozwe muri Polyethylene niyo akunzwe cyane kubera uburyo ahitisha urumuri n’uburyo afata ubushyuhe .

Iby’ingenzi biranga iyi saso

  • Ituma umwuka utagenda bityo igatuma nta mazi agenda mu buryo bw’umwuka
  • Ituma ubushyuhe bw’ubutaka budahindagurika
  • Ishobora gukoreshwa ibihembwe by’ihingwa birenze kimwe bitewe n’iyo ariyo

Uko iyo saso iteye

  • Umubyimba w’ishashi: ubusanzwe umubyimba w’ishashi nta ngaruka ugira ku bwiza bw’isaso kereka iyo iyi yakoreshejwe nk’uburyo bwo gushyushya ubutaka. Ariko muri iyi minsi hari ubushashatsi bugenda bwerekana ko umubyimba w’isaso hari icyo wongera/ugabanya ku musaruro .
  • Ubugari bw’ishashi: Ibi ahanini bigenwa n’intera iri hagati y’imirongo y’ibihingwa. Ubusanzwe ubugari bwa metero imwe cyangwa imwe n’igice nizo zikunda gukoreshwa ku bihingawa byinshi
  • Ibara ry’Ishashi yakoreshejwe : Ibara ry’ishashi rigira ingaruka:
  • Ubushyuhe bw’ubutaka
  • Ubushyuhe bw’umwuka iruhande rw’igihingwa
  • Ikigero cy’umunyu w’ ubutaka

Uburyo bwo gusasiza Amashashi yabugenewe

  • Ku biti by’imbuto, imboga, n’ibindi bihingwa
  • Ishashi ikenewe uyikata ku kizingo uba waguze
  • Banza usukure aho ugiye gutwikira ukuraho amabuye, ibyatsi n’ibindi byakwangiza isaso yawe
  • Banza ubinge neza aho ugiye gusasira kandi uhuhire niba humagaye.
  • Ugomba gukora ku buryo aho isaso irangirira ku ruhande uri bubashe kuyitaba agace gahera kugirango itaka ugeretseho ribashe kuyifata
  • Ushobora gutobora ishashi mu mpanze enye zihera zayo kugirango worohereze amazi kugenda mu butaka

Uburyo bwo gusasira Imboga

  • Amashashi yoroshye cyane adafite umubyimba munini niyo akoreshwa
  • Ishashi iramburwa ku murongo uri buterweho imbuto bikozwe mu burebure bwawo.
  • Utobora ishashi rwagati muri yo, ufatiye ku bugari bwayo ukoresheje igikoresho gifite umurambararo munini
  • Uhereye ku mutwe umwe w’umurongo uterwaho imbuto urambura ishashi uyikura ku kizingo cyayo, iyo nta mashini yo kuyishyiraho hifashishijwe abantu batari munsi ya batatu, umwe afata ishashi akayirambura abandi babiri umwe mu ruhande rumwe rw’iyogi undi mu rundi bagenda bataba ku mpera z’ishashi.
  • Banza uhinge ubutaka neza unashyiremo ifumbire y’imborera n’imvaruganda ikenewe mbere yo gusasira
  • Imbuto zishyirwa mu butaka nyuma yo gushyiraho isaso unyujije muri ya myenge watoboye mu ishashi
  • Mu gihe ari ingemwe ugiye gutera nazo ziterwa muri iyo myenge uba watoboye twavuze hejuru
  • Mu gihe uri gusasira imbuto zatewe mbere, gupfumura ishashi nabyo bikorwa kimwe hanyuma mu kuyishyiraho ukabanza gutaba uruhande rumwe hanyuma ukarambura ishashi/isaso hejuru yazo ukagenda winjiza muri ya myenge wasize ubikoze n’intoki warangiza ukaza gutaba urundi ruhande

Ibyitonderwa mu gushyiraho ishashi

  • Mu gihe cyo gushyiraho ishashi ntuyikurure cyane byatuma icika cyangwa ikazahura n’ikibazo cy’ubushyuhe bwinshi igacika cyangwa se bitewe n’imikurire y’igihingwa bikazayigiraho ingaruka.
  • Ishashi igomba kuramburwa neza kugirango itazizingazinga bitewe n’ubushyuhe cyane cyane kw’isaso y’umukara
  • Ishashi ntigomba gushyirwaho mu masaha y’ubushyuhe bwinshi icyo gihe ishashi iba ishobora gukweduka byoroshye igacika

Gukuraho ishashi/isaso nyuma yo kuyikoresha

Mu gihe ishashi/Isaso ikeneye gukoreshwa mu gihembwe cy’ihinga gikurikira , ibihingwa bisarurwa bikatirwa hejuru gato y’ishashi/isaso hanyuma isaso igakurwaho neza ikongera igakoreshwa (ibi bikunze kuba ku mashashi afite umubyimba munini).

Hari amashashi akoze ku buryo iyo ahuye n’imirasire y’izuba atangira guhinduka agacikagurikamo uduce duto cyane bitewe n’iminsi uwayikoze yayigeneye , aya mashashi rero arabora agahindukamo ibintu bidateye ikibazo ku butaka, gusa cya gice cyatabwe cyo kuko kidahura n’izuba ntikibora , iki rero mu guhinga gukurikiyeho giteza ikibazo, ubushakashatsi buracyakorwa ngo hakorwe amashashi atangiza ubutaka n’ibidukikije.

Uburyo bwo kuhira iyo wakoresheje iyi saso

  • Ku kuhira gukoresheje ibitonyanga (drip irrigation) udutembo dutwara amazi tunyuzwa mundi y’ishashi kandi tugashyirwamo mbere yo gusasira.
  • Mu buryo bwo kuhira ukoresheje amazi menshi atemba ( flooding irrigation) amazi yinjirira muri twa twenge twatobowe mu isaso.

Isaso ikenewe ingana ite?

Kumenya isaso ukeneye ni ikintu cy’ingenzi mu gutegura ubuhinzi bwawe. Mu butaka buringaniye, isaso ikoreshwa iba ugereranyije ingana n’ubuso bw’umurima ushasha gusasira. Mu butaka bugizwe n’amabimba n’amayogi isaso ikenerwa izaba iruta ubuso bw’umurima ushaka gusasira. Mu buryo bwo gusasira bugenda busiga umwanya munini hagati y’imirongo, isaso iba ingana na 50-60% by’ubutaka bushaka gusasirwa.

Byateguwe na NIYIGABA Etienne (eniyigaba@yeanrwanda.org)

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1 comment

BLAISE PASCAL MUVUNYI :

2017-06-26 11:00:58
that's a nice story! this technology may improve plant resilience to droughts amid other merits, and is fairly affordable compared to irrigation... however, it's not without its downside; white pollution etc... investigations are needed to assess its feasibility in the thousand hills country...