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NIYIGABA  Etienne

2017-07-18 15:59:00

Uko ifumbire mvaruganda ikoreshwa n’ingano yayo ishyirwa kuri buri bwoko bw’ibihingwa n’igihe ishyirwaho

Uko ifumbire mvaruganda ikoreshwa n’ingano yayo ishyirwa kuri buri bwoko bw’ibihingwa n’igihe ishyirwaho

Ifumbire mvaruganda

Uretse ifumbire y’imborera , ibihingwa bikenera n’imyunyu ituruka mu ifumbire ikorerwa mu nganda, kuko iyo mu mborera iba idahagije, ikunganirwa niyo yindi. Ifumbire mvaruganda ni ifumbire ikorerwa mu ruganda, imeze nk’ifu cyangwa utubumbe; ikaba igizwe n’umunyu ntunga bihingwa umwe, ibiri, itatu cyangwa irengaho . iyo fumbire ifite ibyo irusha isanzwe y’imborera nko kurekura vuba imyunyu ntunga bihingwa y’ingenzi, cyane N, P, na K (kandi ku bwinshi) ituma ibihingwa bikura neza.

Naho Travertin (CaO) (ibifonyo/igifonyi) cyangwa ishwagara (Ca(OH)2) bigabanya ubusharire mu butaka, bityo ifumbire yose ushyizemo igashobora kugirira akamaro igihingwa.

Amoko y’ifumbire mvaruganda

Amoko y’ifumbire mvaruganda aboneka ku masoko aratandukanye hakurikijwe imyunyu aha ubutaka:

-Agizwe n’umunyu umwe: Ire, TSP, KCl, K2SO4, MgSO4...

-Ifite imyunyu ibiri : DAP

-Arimo imyunyu itatu: NPK...

-N’ay’imyunyu irenze itatu: NPK+MgO...S, Mn

Hakurikijwe iyi myunyu, amafumbire mvaruganda ari ubwoko bwinshi, ariko ay’ingenzi akunze gukoreshwa mu Rwanda ni atatu akurikira: NPK 17-17-17; NPK 22-06-12+S; NPK 20-10-10; NPK 25-05-05), DAP na Ire; hakiyongeraho Ishwagara/Travertine.

Uko ifumbire mvaruganda ikoreshwa

  • Ku binyampeke: mu itera cyangwa imyaka imaze kumera, bashyira 2,5kg za NPK17.17.17 cyangwa 1kg ya DAP kuri ari 1; mu ibagara bakongeramo 0,5 kg za Ire kuri ari 1. Iyo fumbire
  • ishyirwa mu duferege baca iruhande rw’umurongo uterwamo imbuto y’ibigori, ingano, amasaka..., noneho bagakurikizaho agataka n’imbuto. Ku muceri, baramisha, nyuma bakavanga n’itaka ritarimo amazi (ryumukijwe).
  • Ku binyamisogwe: mu itera cyangwa imyaka imaze kumera, bashyira 1kg ya DAP cyangwa 2kg za NPK17.17.17 kuri ari1. Ifumbire ishyirwa mu karongo bateramo imbuto y’ibishyimbo, soya..., bagakurikizaho agataka n’imbuto.
  • Ku binyabijumba: bashyira 3kg za NPK 17.17.17 kuri ari 1. Ku birayi, mu itera, iyo fumbire mvaruganda ishyirwa mu kobo bateramo imbuto, bagakurikizaho agataka n’ikirayi. Ku bijumba, mu itera cyangwa ingeri z’imigozi zitangiye gushibuka, ifumbire ishyirwa mu duferege baca iruhande rw’imirongo y’imigozi.
  • Ku nsina: bashyira 125g za NPK 17.17.17 ku nsina imwe: ½ mu itera, ikindi gice gisigaye nyuma y’amezi 3). Ifumbire ishyirwa mu ruziga ruzengurutse insina.
  • Ku mboga: zimaze gufata neza, bashyiramo 4kg kuri ari 1. Iyo fumbire igashyirwa mu gaferege kazengurutse urugemwe rw’imboga.
  • Ku kawa: bashyiramo 200g za NPK 22.06.12+S mu bihe bibiri (1/2 m’Ugushyingo na 1/2Werurwe). Iyo fumbire bayizengurutsa igiti cy’ikawa.
  • Ku cyayi: bashyiramo 60g za NPK 25.05.05 kuri buri rugemwe cyangwa igiti; ishyirwa mu kaziga kazengurutse igiti cyangwa urugemwe.
  • Mu butaka busharira (hafi kimwe cya kabiri cy’ubutaka bwose bw’igihugu ), ku bihingwa byose, ni byiza kubanza gushyiramo 2,5T z’ishwagara Ca(OH)2 kuri HA; ikamaramo ibihembwe bine by’ihinga; cyangwa 3T za Travertine, ikamaramo imyaka itandatu (gukosora ubusharire bw’ubutaka). Travertine cyangwa Ishwagara bishyirwa mu murima hasigaye ibyumweru bibiri ngo batere imbuto; kandi ikwirakwizwa mu murima wose. Travertine ikagira akarusho ko kuba ihendutse (12-15F ku kilo ku ruganda, ishwagara ikagura 58-63F ku kilo) kandi ikamara igihe kirekire mu murima ugereranyije n’ishwagara.

Umusaruro uboneka iyo hakoreshejwe ifumbire mvaruganda (ibihingwa by’ingenzi) 

Igihingwa Umusaruro kuri Ha 1 itarimo ifumbire mvaruganda Umusaruro kuri Ha 1 harimo ifumbire mvaruganda
Ibirayi 8-12 T 15-25-35 T
Ibigori 1-1,8 T 3-4-6-8 T
Umuceri 2,5 T- 3 T 4-6-9 T
I b i s h y i m b o bishingirirwa 0,8-1,5 T 2,5-3-3,5 T
Insina y’urutoki 13kg ku gitoki 35kg - 50kg - 120kg ku gitoki
Ingano 0,5-1,2 T 2-2,5-3,5 T
Imyumbati 15-20 T 40-50 T

Nk’uko bigaragara mu mbonerahamwe iri hejuru, ifumbire mvaruganda ituma umusaruro wiyongera cyane, ku buryo ushobora kwikuba inshuro nyinshi (2,3,4,5...) hakoreshejwe (ikoranabuhanga) imbuto z’indobanure, kandi mu butaka burwanyijeho isuri. Ibyo aribyo byose ifumbire mvaruganda iriyishyura kandi igasagurira umuhinzi inyungu igaragara.

Iyi nyandiko yakuwe mu gitabo cyitwa “Duhinge Kijyambere , agatabo ka 2” ko muri Kamena 2012, cya Minisiteri y’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi

Yanditswe na NIYIGABA Etienne (eniyigaba@yeanrwanda.org)

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