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NIYIGABA  Etienne

2017-08-22 14:25:03

Dusobanukirwe umuganura n’isano yawo n’ubuhinzi n’ ibihembwe by’ ihinga mu Rwanda

Dusobanukirwe umuganura n’isano yawo n’ubuhinzi n’ ibihembwe by’ ihinga mu Rwanda

Umuganura mu Rwanda ni ibirori bitari ibyavuba kuko bifite inkomoko mu bihe bya kera u Rwanda rugitegekwa n’abami. Ni ibirori byizihizwaga n’Abanyarwanda bigatangizwa n’ umwami bishimira umusaruro w’ubuhinzi. Byakorwaga mu byiciro: Ibirori byambere byo kuganura byabaga muri Mutarama ubwo uburo bwabaga bweze icyo gihe hagakorwa ibirori byo kuziganura byitwaga “Umurorano”. Ibirori by’ umurorano byakurikirwaga n’ umuganura nyirizina byakorwaga mbere gato y’umuhindo ahagana muri Kanama ( y’ Ubu). Gusa umurorano ntiwari wamamaye cyane bitewe n’ uko mu Rwanda hose atariko babuhingaga.

Umuganura wo mu kwezi kwa munani bishimira umusaruro w’amasaka wo wari uzwi cyane mu gihugu kandi ugahabwa agaciro gakomeye. Wabaga ugamije kwishimira umwero w’amasaka. Kuba umuganura warakorerwaga ku mwero w’amasaka n’uburo ntibisobanuye ko nta yindi myaka yabaga yarahinzwe, ahubwo ni uko uburo n’amasaka ari zo mbuto nkuru ( ziruta izindi) mu muco nyarwanda).

Intangiriro y’umuganura n’imitegurire yawo

Nta gihe kizwi nyir’izina umuganura waba waratangiye kwizihizwa, cyakora uruhererekane-mvugo rucishiriza ko watangiye ku ngoma ya Gihanga Ngomijana, ahayinga mu kinyejana cya cyenda. Ikizwi neza ni uko kwizihiza ibirori by’umuganura byaciwe mu 1925 bikozwe n’abakoroni ndetse umwiru wari ishinzwe iyo mihango witwaga Gashamura bamwirukana mu gihugu. Gusa nyuma y’icyo gihe abantu bakomeje kwizihiza umuganura mu miryango yabo.

Mu nzira y’ umuganura (imihango yari yaragenewe ibirori by’ umuganura) hagaragaramo uko ubirori byabaga biteguye neza aho abashinzwe imyiteguro yabyo bari abiru b’abatsobe) bakomoka kuru Musana. Ubusanzwe iyo nzu yo kwa Musana ikaba yari ifite inshingano zo guhinga uburo n’amasaka byari bigenewe gukoreshwa mu birori by’ umuganura.

Ibirori by’ umuganura umwami umwamikazi n’ umugabe kazi babigiragamo uruhare cyane. Ibyo birori byakomerezaga mu miryango abakuru b’ imiryango bakabigiramo uruhare ndetse bikab abityo mu ngo nyir’izina.

Umuganura wizihizwaga bavuga umutsima w’amasaka bigatangirira I Bwami umwami umugabekazi, umwamikazi n’ umwiru mukuru bakora ikimenyetso cyo guturira,kwarika no guhakura umutsima ubundi ibirori bigakomereza mu miryango. Cyakora ntibyari ihame ko kuganura bikorwa barya umutsima gusa kuko mu miryango wasangaga bashigishe amarwa, umusururu, Inturire cyangwa se igikoma cy’amasaka. Umukuru w’umuryango ni we wabanzaga gusomaho cyangwa kurya abandi bagize umuryango bagakurikiraho. Umuganura w’umusaruro w’amasaka ni wo wari umunsi mukuru w’ igihugu kuko amasaka yahingwaga mu duce twose tw’ igihugu.

Uko ibihe byagiye bihinduka ni na ko umuganura wagiye uhindura isura. Ibi bishimangirwa n’uko izari imbuto nkuru zunganiwe n’zindi. Imwe mu mpamvu amasaka yari imbuto nkuru n uko yavagamo ibinyobwa nk’amarwa umurururu igikoma, akavamo n’ibiribwa nk’umutsima n’impengeri. Ibirori bnyayoborwaga n’ umwami na byo byacitse ahagana mu mpera z’ingoma ya Musinga kuganura bisigara muri rubanda mu miryango.

Umuganura uhura ute n’ ihinga

Umwaka w’ ubuhinzi ugira ibihembwe bitatu. Igihembwe cya mbere gitangira mu gihe cy’ umuhindo utangira mu kwezi kwa cyenda kikarangira muri Gashyantare. Iki ni cyo gihe umurorano wakorwaga kera. Igihembwe cya kabiri kitangirana na Werurwe kigasozwa na Kamena aho usanga hirya no hino isarura ririmbanyije ndetse mu kwezi gukurikira amasaka akaba asarurwa anahunikwa. Ni muri iki gihembwe ugereranyije n’ ingangabihe y’ icyo gihe ibirori by’Umuganura byatangiraga gutegurwa bitegura imboneka za Kanama. Igihembwe cya gatatu cy’ ihinga gitangirana na Nyakanga kikageza muri Nzeri ni cyo cyahuriranaga na bya birori by’umuganura ndetse muri iki gihembwe niho umwami yatangizaga igihembwe cya mbere cy’ingengabihe y’ihinga y’icyo gihe.

N’ubwo Abanyarwanda batari barize icyo gihe, bakoresheje ibimenyetso gakondo bamenyaga ko imvura iri mu mezi yo guhanguka. Mu nzira y’ umuganura hagaragaramo ko amasuka yacuriwe mu Buberuka (amaberuka) atarakora hasi yamurikirwaga umwami na we akayafatira imbere ye agaterura akabwira wa mwiru ati “ngaho genda uhinge kandi weze”. Muri make umwami rakaba atanze uruhushya ku mugaragaro rwo gutangira igihembwe cy’ ihinga mu gihugu cyose. Nk’uko bigaragara mu mihango y’inzira y’ubwiru y’umuganura, ihinga ryatangiriraga mu nkuka z’ibishanga bitewe n’uko icyo gihe imvura yabaga itararimbanya.

Nyamara ingengabihe isanzwe dukurikiza ubu itandukanye gato n’iyakoreshwaga kera (tuzabigarukaho ubuhataha). Kuba rero ihinga ryaratangizwaga ariko bagatangirira mu nkuka z’ibishanga byumvikanisha neza ko icyo gihe imvura yabaga itaragwa ngo ihamye. Cyakora rubanda rwanakomerezagaho gusekera/ kurima ibisigati bitegura imvura y’’umuhindo. Muri ibi bihe kandi habaga hanakusanywa amakuru y’ ikirere hifashishijwe amavubiro yari hirya no hino mu gihugu.

Kuba umuganura warakorwaga muri Kanama bifite igisobanuro kuko babaga bitegura imfura y’ amezi y’umwaka Nyarwanda “Nzeri”. Ukwezi kwa Nzeri ni ko kwari ukwezi kwa mbere k’ umwaka wo hambere. Ibi bisobanuye ko uko twita Mutarama muri iki gihe mbere y’abakoroni Atari ko kwari ukwa mbere.

Umushakashatsi Pagès mu bushakashatsi yakoze ku mezi n’ umwaka by’ u Rwanda rwo hambere yagaragaje ko umwaka watangiraga muri Nzeri kandi ukagira amezi 13. Bitewe n’ uko mu mpera za Nyakanga bamaze guhunika imvura yatangiraga kugwa. Ni yo mpamvu Kanama yo hambere yabagamo iyo bita “Gatumba gatoya” na “gatumba kanini”.

Ese hari isano iri mu migendekere y’umuganura wo hambere n’ uw’ubu?

Hari byinshi byahindutse mu mitegurire y’ umuganura wo hambere n’ uw’ubu. Isano ya mbere ni uko umuganura ategurwaga mu rwego rw’ igihugu kandi igategurwa n’ umwiru ubishinzwe ukayoborwa n’ umwami. Ikindi ni uko umuganura wo hambere wabaga mu mu isarura ry’amasaka. Bitewe n’ ihindagurika ry’ imibereho y’Abanyarwanda n’ imiyoborere y’ igihugu hari ibyagiye bihinduka bitewe n’ ibyo ubuyobozi bw’ igihugu bubona biboneye.

Nk’ubu, umuganura wo hambere na wo wabaga izingiro ry’ubusabane hagati y’ imiryango n’abaturanyi nk’uko ubu bimeze. Kuba Minisiteri y’ Ubuhinzi n’ ubworozi buri ntangiriro y’igihembwe cy’ihinga itangiza ku mugaragaro igihembwe cy’ ihinga mu gihugu, bigaragaza neza agaciro ubuyobozi buha ubuhinzi. Cyakora aho bisa n’ ibitandukaniye ni uko amakuru ku itangira ry’ igihembwe cy’ ihinga adatangarizwa mu muganura nka kera. Ibi bishobora kuba biterwa n’uko usanga ubu imitegurire y’umuganura ishingiye kuri Minisiteri y’ umuco kurusha Minisiteri y’ ubuhinzi n’ ubworozi. Ikindi ni uko kera umwami yatangazaga rimwe igihembwe cy’ihinga mu muganura nyamara ubu Minisiteri y’Ubuhinzi n’ ubworozi yo yita ku gutangaza no gutangiza ku mugaragaro ibihembwe by’ihinga byose uko ari bitatu.

Tubifurije umuganura muhire wa 2017

Yateguwe na Niyigaba Fidèle, (email: nfidelis12@yahoo.fr) ushinzwe itangazamakuru muri Nile Basin Discouse akaba n’impuguke mu muco nyarwanda.

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