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2017-10-05 11:45:00

Kuhira: Ingaruko zo kubura kw’amazi k’umusaruro w’ibihingwa, Igihe igihingwa gikenera amazi cyane, n’ingero z’ibihingwa n’igihe bikeneramo amazi menshi.

Kuhira ni ukongera amazi mu murima kugirango  ubutaka bukomeze buhehere mu gice imizi iba irimo kugirango igihingwa gikure neza kandi gitange umusaruro mwiza kandi mwinshi .

Ubuhinzi bukozwe bugendeye ku kugwa kw’imvura nk’isoko yonyine yo kobona mazi ibihingwa bikoresha kugirango bikure bugira ingaruka mbi k’umusaruro kuko imvura ishobora kugwa cyangwa ntigwe ititaye ku kuba umuhinzi yarahinze cyangwa atarahinze . Ni ngombwa rero ko tumenya ibijyanye no kuhira kugirango twunganire amazi y’imvura twongera amazi mu murima kugirango twuzuze amazi igihingwa gikenera ngo gitange umusaruro mwiza.

Twuhiza amazi angana ate inshuro zingahe?

 Ibi biterwa n’amazi igihingwa dushaka kuhira gikenera. Amazi igihingwa gikenera abarwa muri milimetero ku munsi (mm/umunsi) cyangwa milimetero ku kwezi (mm/ukwezi) . Amazi akenewe kongerwa mu murira wuhira kandi nanone angana n’amazi igihingwa gikenera ukuyemo amazi y’imvura yaguye. Mu busanzwe twagakwiye kuhira buri munsi ariko bitewe n’uko bisaba imirimo myinshi n’igihe kinini twuhira dushyiramo intera wenda y’iminsi ibiri, itanu, icumi bitewe n’igihingwa ariko ugakora ku buryo ya ntera wasizemo y’igihe amazi wuhiye azaba agihagije kugeza igihe uzongera kuhirira.

Muri make ni kangahe dukwiye kuhira?: Kenshi gahagije kugirango igihingwa kiticwa no kubura amazi. Twuhiza amazi angina ate? :Amazi angana n’ayo igihingwa cyakoresheje  kuva ku gihe uheruka kuhirira.

Iyo umaze kuhira igihingwa kiba kibasha gukoresha amazi ku buryo bworoshye cyane ariko uko hagenda hashira iminsi nyuma yo kuhira utarongera kuhira igihingwa kigenda kibura imbaraga zo gukoresha amazi aba asigaye mu butaka. Ugomba kuhira mbere y’uko igihingwa gitangira kwerekana ibimenyetso byo kubura amazi kuko iyo cyambyerekanye kiba cyamaze guta ubushobozi bumwe buzakigeza ku musaruro wifuzwa.

Amazi ashobora gushyirwa mu murima  ashobora guterwa n’ibintu bitatu:

  • Ubwoko bw’ubutaka
  • Uburebure bw’imizi y’igihingwa
  • Uburyo bwo kuhira bukoreshwa

Ubwoko bw’ubutaka: Bugena amazi menshi ashoboka ashobora gufatwa mu butaka. Ubutaka b’umusenyi bushobora gufata amazi make, muri ubu butaka bw’umusenyi kuko buhitisha amazi cyane bisaba kubira kenshi ukoresheje amazi make buri nshuro wuhiye. Naho k’ubutaka bw’ibumba cyangwa inombe kuko bwo budahitisha amazi cyane bisaba kubira inshuro nke ariko ukoresha amazi menshi buri nshuro wuhiye.

Uburebure b’imizi y’igihingwa: ibihingwa bifite imizi migufi, amazi make ashobora kuguma mu gice kirimo imizi gusa ukuhira kenshi. Naho ku bifite imizi miremire bikenera n’amazi menshi kuburyo wakuhira gake ariko ugashyiramo amazi menshi. Ibihingwa bikiri bito bigira imizi migufi ugereranyije n’ibikuze niyo mpamvu iyo ukimara gutera cyangwa kubiba , igihingwa biba bikeneye amazi make ariko inshuro nyinshi kurusha mu gihe kimaze gukura.

Uburyo bwo kuhira bukoreshwa: Amazi ashobora kwinjira mu butaka hakoreshejwe uburyo ubu n’ubu bigomba kureberwa mu murima. Urugero , ugiye gukoresha kuhira ushyira amazi mu murima nko mu muceri amazi menshi ashobora kwinjira mu butaka mu gihe wuhiye inshuro imwe kurusha uko waba ugiye kuyashyiramo ukoresheje kuhira hakoreshejwe utwuma tuyanyanyagiza mu murima, gusa mu kuhira ku buso buto uburyo bukoreshwa aba ari ingenzi kugirango umenye inshuro uzuhira ibihingwa byawe.

Ingaruko zo kubura kw’amazi k’umusaruro w’ibihingwa

Mu busanzwe mu murima wuhirwa ibihingwa ntago byakagombye kugira ingaruka zo kubura amazi kuko amazi agomba gushyirwamo mbere y’uko ibimenyeho by’ibura ry’amazi ku bihingwa bigaragara.  Gusa bishobora kudashoboka kuhira kuri cya gihe koko igihingwa gikeneye amazi. Urugero umugezi ushobora gukama cyangwa ukagira amazi make mu gihe akenewe na benshi, guhitamo gusaranganya amazi make ufite ku buso bunini kugirango buri muhinzi wese aboneho nubwo aba ari make kuyo yari akeneye. Muri icyo gihe cyo kubura kw’amazi ni ngombwa kumenya:

  • Igihingwa kigirwaho ingaruka nyinshi no kubura amazi,igihingwa kizagira umusaruro muke nikitabona amazi.
  • Igihe igihingwa gikenera amazi cyane mu mikurire yacyo.

Birumvikana ko hari ibintu  byatuma uhitamo kuhira cyane igihingwa runaka nk’inyungu gitanga ukurikije n’ibindi, ibi biterwa n’umuhinzi uko abyumva.

Uko ibihingwa byangizwa no kubura kw’amazi

Muri rusange ibihingwa bihingwa hakenewe gusarurwa ibibabi byabyo cyangwa imbuto ziribwa nibyo bikunda kugirwaho ingaruka nyinshi zo kubura amazi kurusha ibihingwa bihingwa hagamijwe  gusarurwa impeke cyangwa imbuto

Ibihingwa byihanganira kubura amazi: 

  • Imyumbati
  • Ipamba
  • Uburo
  • Inkori
  • Amasaka

Ibihingwa byihanaganira gake kubura amazi

  • Alfalfa
  • Citrus
  • Inkeri
  • Ubunyobwa
  • Soya
  • Ibihwagari
  • ingano

Ibihingwa byihanganira biri mu rugero kubura amazi

  • Ibishyimbo
  • Amashu
  • Ibigori
  • Ibitunguru
  • Amashaza
  • Urusenda
  • Inyanya
  • Imyungu

Ibihingwa bitihanganira/byangizwa vuba no kubura amazi

  • Urutoki
  • Imboga (z’ubwoko bwose)
  • Umuceri wo mubishanga
  • Ibijumba n’ibirayi
  • Ibisheke

Nk’uko bigaragara muri ibi bihingwa tubagejejeho, umuceri, urutoki, ibijumba n’ibirayi,ibisheke byose ntibyihanganira kubura kw’amazi , bivuzeko niyo habaho kubura amazi guke umusaruro ubivaho uragabanyuka cyane. Kubura kw’amazi bigomba kwirindwa muri ibi bihingwa .

Ibihingwa nk’amasaka, uburo byo bigaragaza kwihanganira kubura amazi ,niba rero habayeho ibura ry’amazi cyangwa izuba rigacana mu gihe kitari kinini umusaruro wabyo ntago uzagirwaho ingaruka cyane

Niba ibihingwa byinshi bitewe mu murima wuhirwa tuvuge nk’ubunyobwa, amasaka na Dodo ariko amazi akaba adahagije , mbere na mbere uzabanza kuhira imboga(dodo) kuko arizo zicwa cyane no kubura amazi kurusha ibindi.

Igihe igihingwa gikenera amazi cyane mu mikurire yacyo

Ubuzima bw’ibihingwa bimara igihembwe kimwe cy’ihinga mu murima bushobora kugabaygwamo ibice bitatu:

  • Igihe igihingwa kigitangira gukura: kuva ku gutera kugeza kigize 10% by’igihingwa cyose
  • Igihe igihingwa kirimo gukura: kuva kigize 10% kugeza kigize 70% by’igihingwa cyose
  • Igihembwe kigeze hagati: harimo kuzana indabo n’imbuto zizatanga umusaruro zitangiye kwikora
  • Igihembwe kirangira: harimo kwera kw’igihingwa no kugisarura.

 Muri rusange twavugako igice cy’ Igihembwe kigeze hagati  aricyo amazi aba akenewe cyane bivuzeko aramutse abuze iki gihe umusaruro ugabanyuka cyane. Ibi biterwa n’uko aribwo igihingwa kiba gikeneye amazi menshi. Igihe igihingwa kitabangamirwa cyane no kubura kw’amazi ni “Igihembwe kirangira” . iki gihe igihingwa kiba kirimo kwera no gusarurwa. Mu gihe igihingwa gisarurwa cyumye bizagira ingaruka nto k’umusaruro , gusa n’ibihingwa bisarurwa bigitoshye nka dodo nabyo kubura kw’amazi muri iki gihe byabigiraho ingaruka.

“Igihe igihingwa kigitangira gukura” na “Igihe igihingwa kirimo gukura” byo biri hagati na hagati ugereranyije n’ibyo tuvuze haruguru. Ibihingwa bimwe iyo bibuze amazi muri ibi bihe bishaka uko biyabona wenda bikazana imizi miremire.

Mu murima uhinzemo igihingwa kimwe, ariko umurima wose ukaba utaraterewe rimwe, amazi akaba ari make abahinzi bagirwa inama yo kuhira ibihingwa bigeze ku gihe “Igihembwe kigeze hagati”(harimo kuzana indabo n’imbuto zizatanga umusaruro zitangiye kwikora).

Ingero z’ibihingwa bimwe n’igihe bikeneramo amazi menshi

  • Urutoki : Igihe cyose
  • Ibishyimbo: Mu gihe bizana ururabo no gukora imisogwe/imiteja
  • Amashu: Igihe ari kubumba no mu gihe ari kwera
  • Amacunga: Mu gihe azana indabo no gukora imbuto
  • Ipamba: Mu gihe rizana indabo no gukora ipamba
  • Imizabibu: Mu gihe ikura no kuzana indabo kurusha igihe cyo gukura kw’imbuto
  • Ubunyobwa: Mu gihe buzana indabo no gukora imbuto
  • Ibigori: mu gihe bitangiye guheka no gupakira imiheko
  • Ibitunguru: Mu gihe igice cyo mu butaka kiri kubyimba
  • Amashaza: mu gihe ari kuzana ururabo  no gupakira mu misogwe
  • Urusenda: igihe cyose
  • Inanasi: igihe zirimo gukura mbere y’uko zana
  • Ibijumba/ibirayi: Mu gihe biri gushora no gukora ibijumba
  • Umuceri:  mu gihe bizana ihundo no kuzana ururabo
  • Amasaka: mu gihe bizana ihundo no kwera k’amahundo
  • Soya: Mu gihe izana ururabo no gupakira mu misogwe
  • Ibisheke: Igihe bitangiye gukura bishibuka bizana n’ingingo
  • Ibihwagari: Mu kuzana ururabo kuruta mu kwera kwabyo
  • Itabi: mu kuzana ururabo
  • Watermelon (imyungu): mu kuzana indabo no gukura k’umwungu wazo
  • Ingano: mu kuzana ururabo.

Iyi ni inyigisho ya FAO yashyizwe mu Kinyarwanda na NIYIGABA Etienne (eniyigaba@yeanrwanda.org)

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