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2017-11-25 12:00:00

Ubuhinzi bwacu: Ibitekerezo by'Abahinzi ku ngingo igira iti :Abize ubuhinzi n'ubworozi mu gukora imirimo y'ubuhinzi n'ubworozi

Nkuko bimaze kumenyererwa ku cyumweru  guhera saa mbiri  ku mbuga nkoranyambaga zose za YEAN tuba turi mu kiganiro UBUHINZI BWACU , kuri iki cyumweru 19 Ugushyingo 2017 twaganiriye ku ngingo igira iti " ABIZE UBUHINZI N'UBWOROZI MU GUKORA IMIRIMO N'IBIKORWA BY' UBUHINZI/UBWOROZI". Aho urubyiruko rukora, rwize ndetse n’ururi gukora ubuhinzi n’ubworozi ruhurira mu ihuriro rya YEAN bagiye batanga ibitekerezo bitandukanye bitewe n’uko babona urubyiruko ndetse n’imirimo/ibikorwa by’ ubuhinzi n’ubworozi muri rusange.

Mu iki kiganiro hatanzwe ibitekerezo byinshi byose byagiye bigaruka kuri ibi bice  bikurikira:

  1. Ni uruhe ruhare abize ubuhinzi/bworozi kugeza ubu bafite mu buhinzi/bworozi?

Ikiganiro gitangira abitabiriye ku mbuga zose bishimiye iyi nsanganyamatsiko ubona bakereye kuyitangaho ibitekerezo kandi niko byagenze. Turagenda tubibagezaho uko byagiye bitangwa nta gihinduweho.

  • « Abize ubuhinzi n'ubworozi bafite uruhare rukomeye mu iterambere ry'ubuhinzi kuko ababukora batarabwize usanga bagirwa inama n'ababwize kumigirire ya buri munsi kugira ngo beze banorore neza ».      
  • « Impamvu zituma abize ubuhinzi bamwe batabukora bakajya mubindi akenshi usanga ari uko babura capital (igishoro) nkanjye nihereyeho mfite igishoro sinajya mubindi kuko nzi neza inyungu ziba mubuhinzi n'ubworozi, kuko mbukurikirana umunsi k’umunsi, indi mpamvu ni uko usanga akenshi igiciro cy’ibikomoka k’ubuhinzi gihindagurika cyane bitewe n'uko value and supply chains za crops zitakozweho ubushakashatsi ngo amakuru yazo amenyekane, ikindi ni uko inganda( food processing industries) na post harvest handlings bikiri poor (bigikennye) cyane bigatuma abize ubuhinzi bagira impungenge zo gushora mubuhinzi kuko akenshi umusaruro utakara ni mwinshi bigatuma batizera maximising. Impamvu rero bigira mubindi si uko batazi ko bushobora kunguka ahubwo ni izo mpamvu zitandukanye zibitera ».
  • « Uruhare abize ubuhinzi/bworozi kugeza ubu bafite mu buhinzi/bworozi: Nibo bakora imirimo ya leta cg y'imishinga ijyanye n'ikigoronomu n'iyamamazabuhinzi ».
  • Uyu ati : « Uruhare ni ruto kuko UBUHINZI henshi buvangirwa n'Abanyapolitiki, Abakuru b'inzego z'Umutekano n'Abashoramari babona amasoko mu buhinzi (Gutunganya ibishanga, abacuruza inyongeramusaruro n'abandi banyabubasha) aba bantu nta jambo Agoronomu agira imbere yabo, icyo bashatse n'ubwo Agoronomu aba abona cyabangamira Ubuhinzi gishyirwa mu bikorwa byakwanga bikitirirwa imyumvire micye ya Agoronomu kenshi akanirukanywa ku kazi ».
  • « Uruhare rw'abize ubuhinzi n’ubworozi ruracyari ruto ugereranije n’umusaruro twagakwiye kuba dutanga aho usanga tudahera iwacu aho dutuye ngo tubanze duhindure uburyo bukoreshwa kuva kera budatanga umusaruro ngo tube twakora improvement duhereye hato hagaragarira buri wese kuko nkeka ko umuturage atapfa gutinyuka ngo akugishe inama kubera wize agriculture cg veterinary mu gihe atabona byibuze ibyo wakoze birenze ibye yaheraho avuga ko ubimurusha! »  
  1. Impamvu zituma abize ubuhinzi/ bworozi batabukora bakajya mu yindi myuga.
  • Uyu yatangiye agira ati : « Murakoze cyaneeeeee ku nsanganyamatsiko nziza nibaza Ko itureba twese abari hano, Icyo navuga nuko abantu bize ubuhinzi nubworozi tutaragera kukigero gishimishije cyo gukora ubuhinzi n’ubworozi nubwo dukomeje kugerageza ariko haracyari byinshi byo gukora, imwe mu mpamvu ituma abantu basiga ubuhinzi bakajya mubindi nuko nta favorable environment yo kubikora ihari ikindi nuko Hari abakibifata nka last option carrier nyamara kurijye mbona ari first option ».
  • « Impamvu zituma abize ubuhinzi/ bworozi batabukora bakajya mu yindi myuga:Akenshi nta gishoro cg ubutaka bwo guhingaho/kororeraho baba bafite farm management experience and skills rarely acquired in their university education 3)sometimes they are risks averse, meaning abize ubuhinzi /ubworozi baba bazi risks nyinshi zibubamo zishobora gutuma umuntu yahomba kandi ntako atagize bityo bagahitamo kureka gukora uwo mwuga bize . For ex :pests , diseases, climate change effects,  and so on”.
  • Uyu ati : « 1)Bituruka ku mateka y'ubuhinzi mu Rwanda aho bwakozwe kuva kera n'umuryango ugamije gushakira abawugize ibibatunga bikomeza bityo ari ubuhinzi bw'umuryango ababyize bumva ko batize kuza guhindura ubuhinzi bwo mu muryango wabo ahubwo ari ugukorera Leta cg undi wabaha inshingano runaka bahemberwa bityo ugasanga abize ubuhinzi ntibagaragara mu mirimo y'ubuhinzi nyirizina bakoresha ibyo bize ahubwo baragaragara mu gukurikirana "Monitoring" no gushyiraho ingamba "policing" kandi ayo  masomo afite abandi bayize bakabaye babikora. Imirimo mu buhinzi bwacu iracyari mike kuburyo abize ubuhinzi bose badashobora kujyamo kandi ubushake n'ubumenyi bwacu mu guhanga imirimo mu buhinzi biri hasi bigatuma bamwe bahitamo gushakiriza ahandi ».
  • Uyu ati : « impamvu abantu twize ubuhinzi n’ubworozi tutabikora nuko bikunda guhomba inshuro nyinshi bitewe n’ikirere (imvura nyinshi cg izuba ryinshi) ikindi kandi isoko ntabwo riri stable ibyo bituma iyo imyaka yeze igiciro kijya hasi nubundi ugahomba.ikindi kandi inputs zirahenze ntabwo output iri proportional na inputs ziba zakoreshejwe ibyo bigatuma wayashora ahandi ushobora gushora macye ukunguka menshi kandi na risk zo guhomba ziri hasi ».
  • Uyu nawe yamwunganiye agira ati : « Ikindi nabonye mumyigire yacu abantu bize cyangwa biga ubuhinzi mumashuli yisumbuye, amakuru na kaminuza ni uko usanga nta mwarimu ubwira abanyeshuli ko bazahinga ahubwo usanga babashishikariza kuzakorera abandi, ibigo bikora ubuhinzi na leta , umunyeshuli rero arangiza kwiga atarigeze afashwa cg akangurirwa business zijyanye no guhinga no korora, kuko akenshi unasanga nko mu mashuri ntamahuriro ashishikariza abantu gukora ibyo bize babishoramo imari aho kujya gusaba akazi,     Namwe mwibuke abarimu batwigishije ibyo batubwiraga! Ntigiraga bati ibi birabazwa mubizamini by'akazi! ».    
  • « Erega igitera kuba tudakora ubuhinzi twikorera ikinini nakigarutseho, ni financial support(gufashwa mu bijyanye no kubona igishoro) kuko nkanjye mfite igishoro byibuze cya 5 Million ntiwampa akazi kampemba net salary ya 600 000frw ngo nkemere keretse kanyemerera gukurikirana imishinga yanjye y'ubuhinzi, biterwa n'iki rero! Ni uko n'ibigo by'imari bitatwizera ngo bibe byatuguriza mumishinga y'ubuhinzi iki kiri mumpamvu natwe twamaze kumenya inyungu ziri mukwikorera mubuhinzi n'ubworozi tutari kubikora kandi tuzi nezako twunguka ».
  • Uyu ati: “Mwakoze kuri iyi topic. Ndimo ndiga ubuhinzi muri U.S and I am planning to come back and work with you to advance our sector. But urebye ubuhinzi bw’iwacu aho kuba business umuntu wese yakifuza kujyamo ahubwo barabuhunga kubera risks zirimo. Nkubu hari about 100 scholars bari muri buffet foundation barimo kwiga Agriculture hano, ariko iyo uganiriye nabo uba wumva nabo batazi ikintu bizaza ngo bakore mu Rwanda”.
  • “Iki kiganiro nikiza cyane indi nama natanga nuko usanga abantu bakiva kuntebe y’ishuri ntagaciro bahabwa bagafatwa nkaho ntacyo bazi igihe cyose ugasanga nabatanga akazi baragaha abo baziranye ndetse ntibarebe k’ubushobozi bw’umuntu bashaka gukoresha ahubwo bagatanga akazi bagendeye kumaranga mutima ibyo bituma nk’umuntu uri able ahita acika intege igihe abonyeko ibyo yize ntagaciro yahawe mo agahita yishakira ahandi yerekeza”
  • “Nashora nte mubuhinzi runaka cyangwa ubworozi runaka ntazi byibuze quantity ikenewe buri munsi ya product nzaba nshoyemo, Niba tutazi ingano ya carrots zikewe buri munsi tutazi iziboneka n'aho izo ziboneka ziva, ubwo nashora nte mubuhinzi bwa carrots koko? Ubushakashatsi burakenewe cyane kuko nibwo butanga umurongo w'ibiriho n'ibikenewe hagakorwa igenamigambi rishingiye kubikenewe”
  • Uyu yatanze igitekerezo kigufi cyane ati: “Ni ukubera ko abafata ibyemezo nta kamaro kanini babona mu bize Ubuhinzi kuko bo bashyiramo ko n'utarabwize abukora”.
  • “Igituma abagoronome naba vétérinaire batandukira bakajya muzindi domaine hazamo no kubura aho gukorera no gushaka guhera kuri byinshi aho guhera kuri bike ngo ugende uzamuka: urugero ukumva ko utatangira umushinga w'ubuhinzi udafite ubutaka buhagije kandi bumwe twita ko ari buto twabuheraho tukazagera kubundi!”
  • “Ukombibona:1.Impamvu abize ibi bintu batabikora icya mbere abanyarwanda dufite indwara yo kwumva ko niba warize byanze bikunze uzategereza ko ubona akazi kaguhemba monthly salary, nta wiga ateganya ko azagera hanze ngo byange ,ikindi twiga theory kubishyira mu bikorwa bikaba ingorabahizi, Ikindi ubuhinzi burahenze kubukoramo business nkurikije uko nabibonye,bisaba kwitanga kugira ube umuhinzi w'umwuga. Bisaba kwihangana ni business utasonzera kuko si ikintu ukora uno munsi ngo ejo uhite ubona umusaruro,iyi ni imwe mu mpamvu zituma abantu bigira mu yindi myuga ibaha udufaranga kuburyo bwihuse”.
  • “Abarangije amashuri vuba nta butaka dufite bwo gukoreraho ubwo buhinzi/ubworozi dore ko no kubugura bikoshwa bityo tukaba tutabona amafaranga yo kugura/gukodesha ubutaka ngo duhite tubona n'ayo kubushoramo ibyo bituma abize ubuhinzi/ubworozi bagana ibindi bibasaba igishoro bafite cyangwa gukorera abandi mubitajyanye na domain. Urugero: Ntabwo wakora ubuhinzi bw' ibirayi udafite ubutaka cyangwa igishoro gitubutse.”
  1. Imbogamizi Abize ubuhinzi/bworozi bahura nazo mu gukora uyu mwuga
  • Uyu yagize ati: “Imbogamizi Abize ubuhinzi/bworozi bahura nazo mu gukora uyu mwuga:1)kutabona igishoro 2) kutabona hands on field practical and farm management experience 3)kutabona bimwe mu bikoresho bibafasha mu buhinzi bwa kijyambere bw'umwuga. Urugero: tillers machine ntoya kandi zidahenze, milking machine, izindi agric.machineries 4) ingendoshuri mu bindi bihugu /uturere ngo bige uko urubyiruko rw’ahandi rukora uyu mwuga”.
  • “Ikindi nk’ubu different pest and disease ntabwo hazwi yield loss % zishobora guteza bityo umuntu akaba yamenya investment yashyira muri control measures”
  •  “Nta huriro ribavugira bafite n'ababavugira basanze mu kazi nta jambo bahabwa”.
  • “Imwe mu mbogamizi ni uko ubuhinzi buhenze ku muntu utarigeze akazi cyangwa utabifitemo experience ihagije”
  • “Abayobozi b'inzego z'ibanze baba bazi ko ibintu bihagaze ariko bakavuga ibyiza gusa kugirango bagaragare neza”
  • “Ubutaka busigaye bukoreshwa uko buri wese abyumva bikabangamira ubuhinzi cyane”
  • “Uburyo bwo kugeza inputs kubahinzi ntibunoze, zigera kubahinzi zicyererewe cg rimwe zikabura ubundi zikaboneka”
  • “Imikoreshereze/imitangire y'inguzanyo z'ubuhinzi itanoze neza”
  • “Uko bigaragara abaveterineri barakora ndetse n' abagoronome mugihe k'ihinga baragaragara. Njye mbona abize ubuhinzi/ubworozi hakiburamo gukunda umwuga wacu. Aha nkagaruka nk’umuntu wize ubuhinzi/ubworozi agaca ahantu akabona hahinze nabi cyangwa itungo runaka ntirimeze neza hanyuma tukabirenza amaso. Nk’ababyize tubukunde kandi dutange umusanzu wacu”.
  1. Ibisubizo kuri izo mbogamizi 
  • « Ibisubizo rero ibyinshi leta yarabitangiye nko gushyiraho kunganirwa muri crops and animals insurance bizatuma ibigo by'imari bitinyuka bihe inguzanyo abashaka gushora m’ubuhinzi n'ubworozi. Ikindi ni ibigega nka BDF byunganira urubyiruko n'abandi bashaka gushora m’ubuhinzi kuri guarantee basabwa n'ibigo by'imari n'ubwo iki kigo cyo  mbona hari ibitaragerwaho nshingiye kuri policy yanditse gifite nkahuza n'ibyo kimaze gukora n' igihe kimaze. Arongera ati : « Igisigaye ni ugukora ubushakashatsi kuri value chains na supply chains za crops zose cyane cyane imboga kugirango hashobore no kubaho organisations mubahinzi bahinga crops zimwe Wenda nk'abahinga amashu bakaba baziranye bafite ihuriro bikaba byaba igisubizo kirambye hamenyekanye approximate quantity ikenewe mugihugu, ibi byaba igisubizo kubibazo byinshi biriho harimo na importation ya crops cyangwa animal products kandi dushobora kubiproducinga imbere mugihugu, Ibi byatuma abantu bize ubuhinzi babukora kuko byagabanya impungenge abenshi bagira kubijyanye n' isoko rihindagurika ».
  • Ibisubizo kuri izo mbogamizi:1) Kwegera Banks zitanga inguzanyo mu buhinzi 2)gusaba inzego zose bireba kugeza agric. Machineries at the available reach to farmers (ntoya, ziri affordable, kdi zikora efficiently kurusha man power) 3) urubyiruko kugira ubushake bwo kwiga, kumenya no gukora ubuhinzi, atari theory gusa 4) YEAN community ifatanyije na MINAGRI n'abandi bafatanya bikorwa, gutegura ingendoshuri imbere mu gihugu no hanze yacyo, zigenewe abize ubuhinzi /bworozi bashaka gukora uwo mwuga ».
  • Uyu ati : « 1)Kwigira kuri gahunda ya Israel abize ubuhinzi bakagira umwanya munini wo  kwimenyereza umwuga 2)Guhurizahamwe abize ubuhinzi bagahabwa inshingano zo kubukora  kandi bagakurikiranwa ».
  • Uyu ati :  « Icyakorwa: hashakwe uburyo market yaba stable ubundi ikijyanye na inputs zihenze cyongerwemo ingufu subsidy zijye no ku miti apana ifumbire na seeds zimwe na zimwe gusa »
  • « Nk'igisubizo rero habaho campaigns zo gushishikariza abantu gukora ibyo bize bigahera mumashuli no mumahuriro y'urubyiruko rwize ubuhinzi »
  • « Uko mbyumva rero: Leta nishore amafaranga muri researches (ubushakashatsi) and extension (iyamamazabuhinzi) kurenza ibindi byose birimo gushyirwa imbere, kandi CAVM n’icyahoze ari ISAR bihabwe amafaranga yo gukora ama researchers mbere ko twahita twirukira mu bikorwa. Abanyeshuli bahabwe ama trainings na practices nyinshi mbere na mbere”
  • “Research ifatika on productivity,  cost benefit analysis for agric value chains nabyo biri mu byatuma investment mu buhinzi ziyongera”
  • Uyu ati: “1) Hakorwe ubushakashatsi kubijyanye na value and supply chains ari nabyo bizerekana ibyo dukeye n'ibihari ibihari dufate imyanzuro ya distribution hose mugihugu, kuko Niba twejeje ikintu runaka aha n'aha ahandi kitaheze nta buryo buhari bwo guhana amakuru kubahinga n'abacuruzi, kuko usanga umuntu yejeje Wenda nk'inyanya ari Nyagatare akabura isoko Atari uko zeze hose mugihugu ahubwo ari ya value and supply chain idasobanutse 2) Hakorwe ubushakashatsi mubanyarwanda hamenyekane ingano ya buri kiribwa gikenewe hashingiwe hagendewe kubikunda kuribwa cyane, noneho hazako ingengabihe y'imihingire hashingiwe kumibare ya buri ngano y'ibikenewe, cyane cyane kubidahunikwa 3) Hashyirweho ingamba zo kugabanya gahoro gahoro ibiribwa bitumizwa hanze kandi byera neza mu Rwanda”.
  • “Hakagombye kumenyekana nimibarare yabize iyi agriculture ndetse veternary ariko bakajya bavangura ibintu umuntu akajya mucyo yize niba Ari crop science ashingwe ibihingwa be gufata abize guteza imbere icyaro cyangwa ubutaka no kuhir  ndetse n’ibindi ngo bivangwe kuko rimwe narimwe usanga umuntu abirimo nawe agasa nushakisha kubera ko ibyo yize hari abandi babirimo bitagenewe”
  • “Ababyize bagomba kubikunda kuko ntawushobora kuguha agaciro utakihesheje. Minisiteri y'Ubuhinzi irasabwa kongerera ubushobozi bw'Amahugurwa abize Ubuhinzi ingeri zose ndetse igaharanira no kubagiraho ijambo kuko UBUHINZI ariyo ibubazwa. Hari nk'abagoronomu bo mu nzego z'ibanze ureba ugasanga MINAGRI itabahugura kandi aribo begereye ABAHINZI ariko kandi ugasanga abo mu bigo biyishamikiyeho yewe n'Umupalanto kaminuza zo hanze barazizengurutse. Ese nta kuntu Abagoronomu b'Imirenge n'Utugari baba abakozi ba MINAGRI batijwe inzego z'ibanze kandi tuzi aho bikorwa neza (E.g: Mu bitaro bya Gisirikari bya Kanombe hari abakozi b'abasirikari batijwe Minisiteri y'UBUZIMA kandi bitanga umusaruro”.
  • “Ibisubizo: nugushyiraho ihuriro ry'abize ubuhinzi n'ubworozi bagahabwa inshingano kdi bakajya bakurikiranwa kdi bakongera bakazirikana ko aribo bagomba kugaragaza impinduka nziza mu buhinzi nubworozi nkabantu babizi babyize kdi babisobanukiwe kurusha abandi nubwo tutakwirengagiza ko hari ushobora kubikurusha ataruko yabyize ahubwo aruko yabikoze akisanisha nabyo cyane kukurusha wowe wabyize!”
  • “Kimwe mu bisubizo Leta nishyiremo imbaraga ihe motivation uwagerageje gutangira uyu mwuga imworohereze ku buryo bufatika inkunga zose zishoboka aziboneho kuko twese kubona akazi ntibyakunda nibinaba ngombwa Leta itange ubutaka busorerwa make aba bagoronome bibumbire hamwe baterwe inkunga bakore kandi bizagabanya ubushomeri n'umusaruro uboneke”.
  • Uyu ati: “1) Abayobozi bose bagomba kuvugisha ukuri uko ibintu bihagaze kugirango decision makers babone aho bakosora, ikindi hagombye kubaho projects z'ubuhinzi muri buri gace zigakora research bakamenya inputs zicyenewe buri hantu 2)Gahunda y'imikoreshereze y'ubutaka yahabwa imbaraga ndetse ubutaka bwagenewe ubuhinzi bugaterwa imbago bugatandukanywa n'ubwagenewe ibindi bikorwa 3) Uburyo inputs zigera kubahinzi bwakosorwa bugashyirwamo abantu benshi kandi babizi bikaba competition kuko ubu uburyo bikorwa ubona bigamije inyungu z'ubucuruzi kuruta uko biba bigamije guteza iyi sector imbere 4)Abize ubuhinzi/ubworozi bakwifashishwa muri mobilization (animateurs rural) buri muntu wese ukora muri iki gice (ubuhinzi/ubworozi) cyangwa bagafashwa mugukora imishinga igamije guteza imbere ubuhinzi/ubworozi 5) Koroshya uburyo inguzanyo zitangwa cyane cyane zigahabwa groups z'abasobanukiwe ubuhinzi/ubworozi kurusha abantu kugiti cyabo kuko bo ubona bashaka kuzijyana mumishinga idafitanye isano n'ibyo bazacyiye bigatuma uru rwego ruguma gusigara inyuma
  • Uyu yatanze igitekerezo cye mu cyongereza gusa ati: “there is need of 6 main solutions to overcome clarified challenges as follow: 1) promotion of Selling price fixation by farmers according to their  expenses and needed benefit (like 25% of production cost) as done for  other commercial commidities (isabune, processed rice and coffee, ...); and hence, 2 ) in complementality to agri insurence subsidy  being initiated, there is need of Crop produces price  subsidy by government to avoid risks of  price fluctuation due to external incoming products; 3) Starting from small available resources (land, other capitals as done for other business such as Sigarettes, solt and soap and parafin-peteroli, one pig, ... ) and then we expand accordingly. But point 1 and 2 should first be well managed to avoid fear; 4) Refleshing minds of existing agronomists and veterinaries (farming as a business skills based training) to start farming as a business; 5) Planning proposed Research to be conducted as we progress for perfection,  given that we have some preliminary information ( i) incoming Food products from abroad (fruits, babana, vegetables, maize grains, ... ), ii) scarcity of food in Rwanda especially in some period such as in Appril,.... ; 6) Giving Agri and vet technicians enough space (decision making) for managing  agriculture in their respective areas of work”.
  • “Mbona icyangombwa ari ugukunda ubuhinzi kubabyize bibaye  inshingano twabibyaza umusaruro kuko mba numva umuhinzi aho ari hose aho tugenda twajya twitegereza nabyo birigisha kuko mubuhinzi nuguhora twiga”

Icyitonderwa:

  1. Ibitekerezo byatanzwe byose ntago byagarajwe hano bitewe n’uko ari ikiganiro kirekire cyane hagiye hatoranywamo imirongo migari ikavugwa muri make hirindwa gusubiramo ibyavuzwe..
  2. Amazina y’abatanze ibitekerezo ntago yagaragajwe muri iyi nkuru gusa amagambo yose ari mu utwuguruzo n’utwugarizo (“…”) yose yandikuwe uko yanditse mu kiganiro.
  3. Ikiganiro nk’iki kiba buri ku Cyumweru.
  4. Ushaka gukurikira ibi biganiro ukaba uri umuhinzi/umworozi cyangwa umugoronome/veterineri ku rwego urwo arirwo rwose nawe wasaba kujya k’urubuga rwa YEAN Whatsapp unyuze kuri nimero ikurikira: +250 788 845 727 ,wakurikira YEAN kuri facebook cyangwa kuri twitter #UbuhinziBwacu @YEAN_Rwanda

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