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2018-03-20 07:00:00

UBUHINZI BWACU: Igiciro kigenerwa umusaruro w'umuhinzi mworozi

UBUHINZI BWACU: Igiciro kigenerwa umusaruro w'umuhinzi mworozi

Bahinzi/borozi namwe mukunda ubuhinzi mwaramutseho neza, Uyu munsi ku cyumweru tariki 04/03/2018 Turakomeza nkuko bisanzwe guhera saa mbiri mu kiganiro UBUHINZI BWACU aho tuganira ku nsanganyamatsiko yateguwe.

Uyu munsi turaganira ku nsanganyanatsiko igira iti: IGICIRO KIGENERWA UMUSARURO W'UMUHINZI-MWOROZI. Umuhinzi-mworozi akazi ke ko guhinga no korora niko kamutunga mu buzima bwe bwose kanamufasha kubona ibyo akeneye bindi bisaba amafaranga. Turagaruka ku ngingo zikurikira:

1. Guhuza Igiciro cy'umusaruro n'imbaraga zashyizwemo ngo uboneke.

2. Uburyo bwo kugena icyo giciro n'ababigiramo uruhare

3. Uburyo umuhinzi-mworozi n'umucuruzi bishimira Igiciro cyashyizweho

4.Imbogamizi ku mpande zombi

5. Ibisubizo kuri izo mbogamizi

Abatanze iibitekerezo bishimiye iyi nsanganyamatsiko . Uyu yatangiye agira ati: “Iyi nsanganyamatsiko inyibutsa ibyo nabonye muri career day yabereye i busogo. Mu by’ukuri kuyumva neza byarushaho kuba byiza uramutse uhinga/worora ukagira experience kuri Costs and returns. Ni agahinda gakomeye cyane”

1. Guhuza Igiciro cy'umusaruro n'imbaraga zashyizwemo ngo uboneke.

·       “Kugeza ubu ibiciro by'umusaruro mbona ari igiciro kijyaho akenshi ari ukugereranya ubundi bagatera forfe bagende uko umusaruro umuhinzi/umworozi afite n'uko isoko ry'umusaruro rimeze bityo umuguzi akishyiriraho ibiciro bye”.

·       “Umusaruro nta giciro gihamye ugira akenshi usanga ari uko umusaruro ubonekera rimwe ari mwinshi kandi amasoko ari make rero abahinzi ugasanga barasa n’abatanguranwa isoko bityo ugasanga bagurishije macye kugirango babone uko umusaruro wabo ubavaho iyi ni case y'umusaruro wangirika ariko no ku musaruro utangirika akenshi usanga ari uku bigenda.”

·       “Njye ku ruhande rwanjye, mbona dukora extension services nabi kuko niba dushaka ko umuhinzi akora ubuhinzi nka business, akaba atazi kubara ibyo yashoye ngo abihe agaciro, akamara amezi 3, 4, 5, 6 voir meme 12 adashobora guha agaciro ibyo yashoye en fonction du temps, biracyari kure. Ibi rero bisaba ko tuzamura ubumenyi mu myumvire y'umuhinzi hanyuma yamenya cost of production and other transactions akaba yabakora estimation y'umushahara we hanyuma akagena igiciro, bityo ubuhinzi buzabera benshi ko busaba ubwenge, then abatabishoboye babireke, ubutaka buboneke ku bashobora kubigira a business.”

·       “Kugeza ubu imbaranga zishyirwa mu buhinzi ntaho zihuriye n’umusaruro kuko amafaranga ashorwa ntabwo ahura n’ibiba byitezwe turacyafite imbogamizi y'inyongeramusaruro yaba imbuto ndetse n’ifumbire kuko ubu imbuto tugira ntirashobora kugera kuri expected yield”

·       “Akenshi usanga igiciro kiri hasi ugereranyije nimbaraga umuhinzi mworozi aba yakoresheje ahubwo abacuruza umusaruro we nibo bunguka cyane Leta yakagombye kujya ijyena ibiciro hakurikijwe uko ifaranga rihagaze Ku isoko hakirindwa n’abamamyi”

2. Uburyo bwo kugena icyo giciro n'ababigiramo uruhare

·       “Nkuko narimbivuze haruguru igiciro gishyirwaho akenshi n' umuguzi agendeye k'ubwinshi bw'umusaruro n'isoko bihari, urahere runini rugenwa n'umuguzi ndetse n'isoko”

·       “Ibiciro akenshi bishyirwaho ku myaka imwe n’imwe nabyo ntibira hura neza n’ibikenewe bitewe nimbaraga umuhinzi abayashoyemo gusa akenshi leta ibishyiraho ifatanyije nabahagarariye abahinzi aribo menshi batungwa agatoki cyane ko aribyo mbogamizi ry’iterambere ry’ amakoperative ntekereza ko ba nyir’ubwite aribo bahinzi babigizemo uruhare rufatika byarushaho kuba byiza.”

·       “Mbona abahinzi-borozi bahura n'igihombo kenshi na kenshi, ari nayo mpamvu ubona ibyaro bidatera imbere kuko ari bo babituyemo, ni uko  batanabimenya ko bahomba.  Kuko urebye amafaranga agenda mu guhinga kuvura, kugaburira, guhemba abakozi, kubyitangira ubwe,  ndetse n'umwanya bigenda Ku itungo cyangwa igihingwa, kugeza ritangiye/gitangiye gutanga umusaruro, nsanga umuhinzi-mworozi ahahombera bikomeye ukurikije ikiguzi cy'umusaruro akuramo bihereye ku biciro by'ibyo asarura bishyirwaho atabigizemo uruhare”.

·       “Ugiye mu mibare utihenze imishinga myinshi y'ubuhinzi n'ubworozi twayivamo. Niyo mpamvu usanga benshi bavuga ngo Aho kugirango nshore amafranga mu buhinzi nabireka, ubundi nkabihaha.”

·       “Ibiciro uko bigenwa usanga rimwe na rimwe ababigiramo uruhare batabanza kureba uko umuhinzi mworozi ahagaze hagendewe n’uko ikirere cyagenze.”

3. Uburyo umuhinzi-mworozi n'umucuruzi bishimira Igiciro cyashyizweho

·       “Ibyishimo by’abahinzi borozi byo ntabyo kuko hiahima uwejeje ari wenyine Ku isoko naho igihe yahuriyeyo nabandi aba ari amarira. Nifuza kubona mu Rwanda abahinzi bahagarara bakigamba ubuhinzi bwabo ko bwatumye bubaka Chaton ndetse bagenda no mumodoka bavugako bakuye mu buhinzi. Birababaza kukona dutunze abantu bo mumirimo itandukanye nyamara akaba aritwe tuguma inyuma ntaterambera tugeraho kandi buri munsi umuntu wese akenera umuhinzi kuri table ye.”

·       “Akenshi mbona umuhinzi/umworozi ashimishwa n'uko yabonye umugurira umusarurowe, naho tugarutse ku kiguzi cy'umusaruro n'abahizi/aborozi bacye/mbarwa bakubwirako banyuzwe n'amafaranga bakuye mu musaruro n'ibikorwa byabo by'ubuhinzi/ubworozi.”

·       “Igiciro gishyirwaho akenshi kiba kibereye umucuruzi.Mutekereze ibiciro by'imiti ivura abantu na services zitangwa kwa Muganga bibaye bigenwa n'uje agana ababikoramo kimwe n'ibindi bicuruzwa byose (Imigati, telefone, unuriro, amazi ...) bikaba bityo. Ubwo izo services n'ubwo bucuruzi byakorwa bigakunda?”

·       “Igiciro gishyirwaho akenshi kiba kibereye umucuruzi kurusha umuhinzi”

4. Imbogamizi ku mpande zombi

·       “Usanga ikibazo kinini kiri kuri cost estimation on the side of the farmers, which in turn would be the foundation of the knowledge, bigatuma byorohera buri wese,”

·       “Mu gushyiraho ibiciro abantu  bashobora kwibeshya bagahera ku musaruro munini ushoboka kuri bamwe kandi abahinzi- borozi bose badakora ibintu kimwe bityo n'imisaruro yabo igatandukana kandi ibishoro bijya kwegerana.”

·       “Imbogamizi zihari nuko abahinzi iyo batemeye ibiciro biri Ku isoko babura aho bashora umusaruro ukabapfira ubusa, abacuruzi usanga babanusura, inyongeramusaruro n'imiti ziboneka zihenze ariko kwisoko bikazaba biri hasi”

·       Abacuruzi nabo babona igishoro bisunze bank rimwe narimwe bakabura inguzanyo cyangwa ikaboneka batakibasha kugurira abafite umusaruro,  inyungu za bank Nazo ziba ziri hejuru.

·       “Nta rwego ruriho ruvuganira umusaruro”

·       “Abahinzi/aborozi ntabwo bakora records”

·       Guhinga hatagendeye ku makuru ajyanye n'ibyo isoko ricyeneye

·       Nta pricing policy ihari

·       Umusaruro mucye ku bihingwa bimwe na bimwe

·       Umusaruro uturuka hanze ugatuma uw'imbere mu gihugu uhungabana

·       Abamamyi ndetse n'ibipimo ngenderwaho mu gupima umusaruro bitujuje ubuziranenge bityo bigahombya umuhinzi/umworozi

5. Ibisubizo kuri izo mbogamizi

·       “Guhuza Igiciro cy'umusaruro n'imbaraga zashyizwemo ngo uboneke;  kuko akenshi usanga igiciro kiri hasi ugereranyije n'imbaraga umuhinzi- mworozi aba yakoresheje ahubwo abacuruza umusaruro we nibo bunguka cyane;”

·       “Birakwiye ko mu kugena ibiciro buri rwego ruhagararirwa,Umuhinzi akagaragaza imbaraga yatakaje kugira ngo umusaruro ugerweho.Iyo urebye  usanga abacuruza umusaruro w'umuhinzi aribo uteza  imbere cyane naho umuhinzi agasigara arira mu myotsi.”

·       “Leta ikwiye gushiraho policy ihamye ijanye n'ibiciro, ibiciro ntibigendere kuko umusaruro uri ku isoko,nk'ubu tuzi neza ko igiciro cy'isukari kidahindagurika buri kanya ndetse n'ibindi bituruka mu nganda. Nk'ubu mu birayi hashizweho ibicyiro,ariko kugeza ubu aho byubahirizwa ni hake cyane”.

·       “Gushyiraho ibiciro byakagombye kujya bikurikiza uko ifaranga rihagaze Ku isoko;”

·       “Gushyiraho ingamba zikarishye zifasha kwirinda abamamyi;”

·       “Hakenewe ibarurishamibare ku musaruro n'ibishoro biba byatanzwe ngo ugerweho;”

·       “Hakwiriye commission ishinzwe kwiga ku biciro by'ibituruka mu buhinzi -bworozi buri gihembwe; “

·       “Gushyiraho Uburyo bwo kugena icyo giciro n'ababigiramo uruhare: biciro uko bigenwa usanga rimwe na rimwe ababigiramo uruhare batabanza kureba uko umuhinzi mworozi ahagaze hagendewe nuko ikirere cyagenze;”

·       “Gutekereza uko habaho Subsidized Price kugira ngo igihe umuhinzi atageze ku byo yifuzaga bitewe n'ibiza n'ibindi adakontorora kuko  atabizi, ashobore gukomeza gukora akazi ke (ntahombe);”

·       “Leta ikwiye gukomeza gukurikirana umuhinzi- mworozi n'umucuruzi bakorana kugirango badakorera mu gihombo bigatera ibura ry'ibiribwa bihagije;”

·       “Gutoza abahinzi-borozi kubika amakuru akajya yifashishwa mu igenagaciro;”

·       “Gukomeza gukangurira abahinzi-borozi kongera umusaruro, kugira ngo igishoro kibe gitoya ugereranyije n'umusaruro, bityo ibiciro ntibizamuke cyane.”

·       “Gushyiraho pricing policy irengera umusaruro ukiri k 'urwego rw'umuhinzi/umworozi.”

Ingero z’igiciro cyagenwa haramutse habazwe ibyakoreshejwe byose

1.Reka dufate urugero rw'Umuhinzi munini (Big farmer) wahinze Ibigori ku butaka bwe bwa 1.5ha muri season A2018 wenda mu BURASIRAZUBA.

IBISHORO:

Kurima (75,000frw), gusanza no gutera imbuto (60,000Frw);

Kugura no gutunda Ifumbire y'imborera ya 10.5tons (40,000frw);

Igiciro cy'ifumbire ya DAP (150Kg×430frw/Kg = 64,500frw), igiciro cy'ifumbire yo kubagaza ya UREA (75Kg×360frw/Kg = 27,000frw);

Igiciro cy'Imbuto y'indobanure SC403 (37.5Kg×300frw/Kg = 11,250frw);

Igiciro cyo kubagara no kurwanya ibyonnyi ~50,000 frw;

Igiciro cyo kuhira ibihe biramutse bitagenze neza : 75,000frw;

Guhemba abasarura, abanika, abatunda n'abahungura Ibigori  ( ~80,000 frw);

 IBISHORO BYOSE : 482,750frw

IBYINJIZA AMAFARANGA (UMUSARURO):

Umusaruro kuri 1ha yahinze neza cyane ni 5.5tons/ha bivuze ko kuri 1.5ha azasarura 7,750kg.

Bizwi ko 30% by'umusaruro byangirikira (food losses) mu gusarura ubwo Ibigori bizaboneka ni 7,750-(7,750kg ×30%) = 5,425kg

Niba igiciro cy'ibigori cyashyizweho ari 180frw/Kg

Ubwo uwo muhinzi azabona 5,425 × 180= 976,500 frw.

Inyungu/Igihombo = 976,500frw - IBISHORO byose = 976,500 frw - 493,750frw = 493,750 frw.

Niba kuva ku rubuto rw'ikigori kugera ku rundi bitwara amezi 5 ubwo ku kwezi Umuhinzi munini (Big farmer) yinjiza 98, 750frw/month ku mwaka ubwo yinjiza 987,500frw. (cycle y'ibigori mu mwaka ni 10month).

Niba umukozi ukorera umushahara uhembwa 100000rwf bimugora guhaha mwibaze uwo muhinzi witwa ngo ni munini.

Twibaze ibiba ku bahinzi bato (small holder farmers) batabasha kubona IBISHORO navuze haruguru.

 

2. Urugero ni urwatanzwe ku nka ya "Freisian ya 500kg irya ibiro 100kg bw' ibyatsi bibisi n'amazi litiro 60l kugira itange litiro 40L z'amata ku munsi.

-Umukozi:200frw/day

-imiti:2000frw/month

-Ubwatsi: 3000frw/day,

-Concentrates=2000frw/day

-amazi(ubusanzwe 20l zigurwa 8frw kuri WASAC niba nibuka neza)= (60*8)/20= 24frw

Ibi ni amakuru nifashije ngendeye ku byo aborozi bajya bambwira.

Umworozi umwe. Namwe muramuzi kuko inka ye yabaye iyambere muri Agrishow y'ubushize ku Murindi. Tuganira  yambwiye ko iyo nka ye yari yabaye iya mbere mu gukamwa, abara ko imutwara amafaranga 5000frw/day. Icyo gihe yari yakamwe 42l z'amata niba nibuka neza".

Ugendeye aha ushyiraho ibiciro by'amata waba wibeshye kuko aborozi bose batabona litiro 42 ku munsi nyamara inka zose ziba  zahiriwe zikagaburirwa zikavurwa n'ibindi.

Icyitonderwa:

 ·       Ibitekerezo byatanzwe byose ntago byagarajwe hano bitewe n’uko ari ikiganiro kirekire cyane hagiye hatoranywamo imirongo migari ikavugwa muri make.

·       Amazina yabatanze ibitekerezo ntago yagaragajwe muri iyi nkuru gusa amagambo yose ari mu utwuguruzo n’utwugarizo (“…”) yose yandikuwe uko yanditse mu kiganiro.

·       Ikiganiro nk’iki kiba buri ku Cyumweru.

·       Ushaka gukurikira ibi biganiro ukaba uri umuhinzi/umworozi cyangwa umugoronome/veterineri ku rwego urwo arirwo rwose nawe wasaba kujya k’urubuga rwa YEAN Whatsapp unyuze kuri nimero ikurikira: +250 788 845 727 ,wakurikira YEAN kuri facebook cyangwa kuri twitter #UbuhinziBwacu @YEAN_Rwanda

·       Ibitecyerezo byatanzwe muri iki kiganiro ni ibyatanzwe n’abahinziborozi ntago ari cyangwa bihagarariye ibitekerezo bya YEAN.

  

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