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NIYIGABA  Etienne

0000-00-00 00:00:00

Ubuhinzi bwa avoka , gutegura ingemwe, kuzitera no kuzitaho mu murima

Ubuhinzi bw ’avoka , gutegura ingemwe, kuzitera no kuzitaho mu murima

1. Aho avoka ikunda kwera

Avoka ikunda ahantu hagwa imvura iringaniye (1250-1750mm) mu mwaka, ubutaka butarekamo amazi menshi kuko atuma imizi ibora bityo igiti kikuma. Avoka yera hose mu Rwanda ku butumburuke buri hagati ya metero 900 na metero 1800, ahantu hari ubusharire bwa PH iri hagati ya 5.5-6 ariko hari n’amoko yera neza hejuru ya metero 2000.

2. Umuryango w’imbuto y’avoka

Avoka Ibarirwa mu muryango w’ibihingwa byitwa lauracees, mu bwoko bwa persea Americana, yakomotse muri Amerika yo hagati. Avoka ni urubuto ruribwa rukungahaye cyane ku muvuta na vitamini. Avoka ni igiti gikura kikagera ku burebure bwa metero 8 kugera kuri 20. Amoko yatsindiriwe akunze kuba magufi kuruta amahumbikano.

3. Akamaro k’Avoka

Avoka zikungahaye mu mavuta kurusha izindi mbuto ziribwa ari mbisi (7.8- 40.7) bityo zigatanga imbaraga, zikungahaye kuri vitamini A, B,C,Ena K. Inombe y’Avoka ikorwamo amavuta yo guteka, umutobe wo kunywa. Avoka kandi zikoreshwa mu nganda zikora imiti, amavuta yo kwisiga n’amasabune, ibishishwa n’ibisigazwa by’inganda bikorwamo ibyo kurya by’amatungo.

4. Amoko y’Avoka

Amoko y’Avoka y’ingenzi yakozweho ubushakashatsi akagaragaza ko yera neza mu Rwanda ni Hass, fuerte, Ettinger, Booth8, Choquette na collisson. Hariho andi yera mu rugero kandi akera hejuru ya metero 2000. Ayo ni nka Zutano, puelba, Dickison, simpson, Bacon, Booth7.

5. Gutegura Ingemwe/ingeli:

Umuhinzi ashobora guhita atera ikibuto cy’avoka mu murima cyangwa mu buhumbukiro, cyangwa agatsindira (guhindura) atera igiti mu kindi. Ingeli umuhinzi atera mu rugemwe ni agace k’ishami cyangwa k’umutwe w’ishami ry’avoka isanzwe yera. Iyo ngeri igomba kuba ifite amaso make. Iba ireshya na cm 6-8 naho umutwe w’urugemwe ugomba kuba ufite agatutu kanini kabyibushye.

5.1Guhumbika

Guhumbika bikorerwa mu butaka bwiza butavuye mu gishanga. Bubaka ubuhumbikiro bakabusakara, bagatera ibibuto mu mirongo byegeranye, imitwe ikarenga ubutaka buhoro, bigatwikirizwa utwatsi duke hanyuma bikavomererwa buri munsi.

-Iyo ibibuto bizanye umumero bigemurirwa mu bihoho bya plastiki bipfumaguye byuzuye igitaka kivanze n’ifumbire. Icyo gihe umumero uba ureshya na cm

1-2 kandi uba ugifashe ku bibuto, zikabangurirwa hanyuma zikazaterwa mu mirima zifite cm15-20.

-Mu gutera ingemwe z’avoka mu murima ni ngombwa gushwanyuza igihoho hagasigara igitaka gikikije imizi kugirango zizafate neza.

5.2 Guherako batera ibibuto (semis direct):

Mu gutera ibibuto mu murima, umuhinzi acukura imyobo ya metero 1 buri ruhande na metero 1 z’ubujyakuzimu akuzuzamo igitaka cyiza cyivanze n’ifumbire:

- Umuhinzi abanza itaka mu mwobo kugeza kuri cm 30 agakurikizaho ifumbire kugeza kuri cm60 akongera agashyiraho itaka ryo hejuru bityo bityo kugeza umwobo wuzuye.

- Cyakora biba byiza iyo ifumbire ivanzwe n’itaka mbere yo gusubiza itaka mu mwobo

- Ibibuto biterwa iyo imvura imaze gutsindagira cya gitaka. Haterwa ibibuto 2-3 umuhinzi asiga cm 15-20 hagati y’ikibuto n’ikindi.

5.3 Gutsindira/Kubangurira (Gutera igiti mu kindi):

Iyo ingemwe zagemuriwe mu bihoho zimaze amezi ari hagati y’atatu n’ane ni ukuvuga urugemwe rufite umubyimba ungana n’ikaramu ruba rureshya na cm 20-30, umuhinzi atera ingeri hagati y’amaso ari muri cm10-15 uturutse kubutaka.

-Ibihoho bigemurirwamo ingemwe z’avoka biba bifite cm 40 z’uburebure na cm 20 z’ubugari. Nyuma y’ibyumweru 2-3 ingeri ishibutse, ukuraho amaso yose aza ku rugemwe kandi akibuka guhambura umugozi urugemwe rumaze kuzana amababi n’igishishwa cy’aho ingeri yaterewe kimaze gufatana neza.

-Ingemwe ziterwa mu murima zireshya na cm hagati ya 30-50, zigatwikirwa mu byumweru bya mbere.

5.4 Gutera Ingeri mu rugemwe:

Mbere yo gutera ingeri mu rugemwe cyangwa kubangurira ni ngombwa kubanza gutegura ingeri izakoreshwa ndetse n’urugemwe rubangurirwa.

6. Gutera ingemwe mu murima:

-Avoka ziterwa mu gihe cy’imvura muri Werurwe na Nzeri. Ingemwe zibanguriye ziterwa zimaze igihe cyiri hagati y’amezi 7 na 10 muri pepiniyeri. Icyo gihe ziba zimaze gufata neza. Iyo avoka zimaze guterwa ni ngombwa kuzifata neza, uzibagarira, biba byiza iyo zihinzwemo ibihingwa bitwikira ubutaka nka desmodium. Ni ngombwa kuvomerera avoka nibura kabiri mu cyumweru igihe ibiti bikiri bito.

-Gucukura imyobo ya cm 60-100 impande na cm 60-100 ibujyakuzimu,

-Gushyira ifumbire n’itaka mu mwobo ku buryo bukurikira: habanza ifumbire mu mwobo kugeza kuri cm 30 z’ubuhagarike, hagakurikiraho itaka izindi cm 30 z’ubuhagarike, hakongerwamo ifumbire kuri cm 20 z’ubuhagarike, hagasoza itaka ryiza kuri cm zisigaye 20.

7. Gukata Avoka

7.1. Ikata ryo gutereka igiti

Iyo igice cyo hejuru ni ukuvuga ingeri yakoreshejwe mu kubangurira imaze gukura ku buryo ireshya na cm 40 umuhinzi ayica umutwe. Icyo gihe ya ngeri ishibuka amashami 3-5 yageza kuri cm 40 nayo agacibwa imitwe kugirango ashibuke andi mato nayo yamara kureshya na cm 40 akongera agacibwa imitwe. Ibyo birakomeza kugeza avoka imaze kureshya na metero 2 aho amashami agenda ashibuka ubwayo.

7.2. Ikata ryo gufata neza igiti

Mu rwego rwo gufata neza igiti cy’avoka kibanguriye umuhinzi akuraho ibisambo, amashami agoramye n’ayumye.

8. Ifumbire

Mu gihe cyo gutera umuhinzi ashyira mu mwobo ibiro 50 z’ifumbire y’imborera ivanze na garama 200 za superphosphate. Nyuma buri mwaka batera garama 400-500 za NPK 20-10-10.

9. Umurumbuko

Avoka yabanguriwe itangira kwera nyuma y’imyaka 3-4; Avoka ni itabanguriye itangira kwera nyuma y’imyaka 6-8. Umusaruro w’avoka uterwa n’ubwoko bw’Avoka n’akarere ibiti biteyemo. Igiti gikuru gishobora kwera imbuto 100-500 cyangwa ibiro 200-300 bingana na toni 15-20 ku mwaka.

Byateguwe hifashishijwe Agenda y'ubuhinzi, bitegurwa na NIYIGABA Etienne (eniyigaba@yeanrwanda.org)

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